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Full text of "Twenty-five historic years : how an exhibition, a magazine and a library brought new life to a famous institution"

'-FIVE ! HISTORIC 
YEARS 



ichusetts Horticultural 
Society 




LIBRARY 

OP THE 

MASSACHUSETTS 

HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

BOSTON 



October, 1976 




A ' 180414 f; - -" 

■ill 
□too? 



A118f1414 FS^r" 3 -' h °" 



Twenty-Five Historic Years 



The Committee on Lectures and Publications has the honor to 

present herewith "Twenty-Five Historic Years/' which constitutes 

the history of the Society for the last quarter of a century. 

Boston, Massachusetts, December i, 1954 
Stedman Buttrick, Chairman 



1 


2 ' "■""**! i J 







TWENTY-FIVE 
HISTORIC YEARS 



HOW AN EXHIBITION, A MAGAZINE 

AND A LIBRARY BROUGHT NEW LIFE 

TO A FAMOUS INSTITUTION 

The history of the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society from March, 1929 



BY 



EDWARD I. FARRINGTON 




PUBLISHED BY THE MASSACHUSETTS 

HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Boston, Mass. 



16- lb 



COPYRIGHT 1955, BY THE 
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



MANUFACTURED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



FOREWORD 

THIS book is more than a history. It is in substance the 
story of a unique, three-way experiment and what resulted 
from it. Consider these facts: Twenty-five years ago no 
other Society like this one had ever attempted to publish and 
circulate a national magazine. No other Library such as ours had 
sent its books to every corner of the land. No other horticultural 
organization had established an annual flower show of the pro- 
portions and with the variety of the one in Boston. Here is an 
account of the manner in which these divergent enterprises were 
developed, blended and unified until the Massachusetts Horti- 
cultural Society had come to occupy the commanding position it 
enjoys today. It is a tale which takes the reader through a great 
depression and a world war, revealing the manner in which the 
many grave problems presented were met and solved. It deals 
with the personalities of the able men who guarded the Society's 
financial stability and guided its destinies in other ways. It will 
stir many memories among our older members and create a bet- 
ter understanding of the Society among those who are younger. It 
is not dry or statistical. I am sure it will be read with interest. 

Arno H. Nehrling 
Executive Secretary 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Introduction xi 

1929 — Year of Mixed Emotions 1 

1930 — A Princely Gift and a Tragedy 6 

1 93 1 — Passing of a Great Benefactor 14 

1932 — The Society Weathers a Depression 23 

1933 — Steady Growth through Troubled Times .... 30 

1934 — A New Exhibition Manager Proves Himself ... 36 

1935 — Rigid Economy Well Rewarded 42 

1936 — Black Ink Unexpectedly Turns Red 49 

1937 — Lord Aberconway Sees an Unusual Show .... 55 

1938 — A Tranquil Year Ends with a Hurricane .... 61 

1939 — The Board of Trustees Takes Drastic Action . . 68 

1940 — A Successful Spring Show Brings Clearer Skies. . 75 

1 94 1 — The Calm Before the Storm 82 

1942 — The Society Turns to War Work 88 

1943 — America's Only Important Spring Show .... 96 

1944 — President Webster Hands His Gavel to John S. Ames 102 

1945 — Peace Brings Many New Problems 111 

1946 — A Year Crowded with Far-Reaching Events . . . 117 

1947 — Advent of a New Secretary Brings Many Changes . 124 

1948 — Important Changes in Personnel 130 

1949 — An Unexpected Windfall and a Busy Year . . . 136 
1950 — Twelve Months of Record-Breaking Prosperity. . 145 
195 1 — Financial Losses and Yet a Good Year . . . . 152 
1952 — A Successful Show Provides for Needed Improve- 
ments 159 

1953 — Serious Problems Are Met with Bold Decisions. . 166 

1954 — Another Anniversary and a Novel Celebration . 174 

Medals of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society . . 183 



viii CONTENTS 

Special Awards at the Flower Shows 185 

Albert C. Burrage Porch Prize Awards 186 

George Robert White Medal of Honor Awards . . . . 187 

Albert C. Burrage Gold Vase Awards 190 

Jackson Dawson Memorial Medal Awards 191 

Thomas Roland Medal Awards 191 

H. H. Hunnewell Medal Awards 192 

Portraits, Busts and Vases 193 

Members of the Board of Trustees from 1929 . . . . 200 

Index 203 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Horticultural Hall Frontispiece 

FACING PAGE 

Albert C. Burrage, President from 1921 to 1931 .... 18 
Edwin S. Webster, President from 1931 to 1944 .... 19 
Frontispiece of a Rare Book in the Library of the Massachu- 
setts Horticultural Society 50 

John S. Ames, Elected President of the Society in 1944 ... 51 
Edward I. Farrington, Secretary from 1924 to 1947 ... 58 
A Part of the Estate in Milton for Which Mr. and Mrs. 

Geoffrey G. Whitney Were Awarded the H. H. Hunnewell 

Medal in 1930 59 

The Garden of Mrs. Charles D. Armstrong at Osterville, for 

Which a Gold Medal Was Awarded in 1941 66 

Scroll Awarded to the Society in 1945 by the Garden Club 

Federation of Massachusetts 67 

Arno H. Nehrling, Who Became Executive Secretary in 1947 . 82 
The Dutch Village on the Stage of Grand Hall at the 1948 

Spring Flower Show, Staged by the Society 83 

The Extensive Planting of Narcissi Made by John Russell at 

Dedham. Awarded a Gold Medal 114 

Prize-Winning Display Staged by Dr. Thomas Barbour at the 

Harvest Show in 1939 115 

Terrace of Mr. and Mrs. William S. Febiger of Manchester, 

Awarded the Albert C. Burrage Porch Fund Medal. In 1953 146 

Stedman Buttrick, Elected Treasurer in 1948 147 

The Society's Medal, The Thomas Roland Medal, and The 

Jackson Dawson Memorial Medal 178 

The George Robert White Medal of Honor, Front and Reverse, 

and The Horatio Hollis Hunnewell Medal 179 



INTRODUCTION 

SOME 125 years ago a few Boston men began holding 
occasional meetings in the down-town district to consider 
forming a Horticultural Society. Most of them lived in 
outlying sections, where they had gardens or even farms. Their 
discussions came to a head on February 24, 1829, when a well 
attended preliminary meeting was held. The actual organization 
took place on March 17. One hundred and twenty-five years ago 
Boston had a population of but 60,000 persons and had been 
incorporated as a city only seven years. Pennsylvania already 
had a Horticultural Society — formed two years before — still a 
prosperous and influential organization. It is the only existent 
Horticultural Society which antedates this one, but it was not 
incorporated as early. 

There was a keen desire on the part of those interested in the 
Boston Society to exhibit the products of their gardens, although 
the amount of material available was exceedingly limited com- 
pared with that of today. The Concord grape had not been orig- 
inated at that time. Neither had such pears as Clapp's Favorite 
and Dana Hovey. The only squash known was a crookneck, and 
tomatoes were looked upon as poisonous weeds. Many of the 
flowers now in common cultivation were undreamed of then. 

Plant hunters were already at work, however, both in the Far 
East and on this continent, and for the next half a century a 
flood of new plant material poured in upon gardeners, much of 
it being exhibited for the first time in the halls of the Massachu- 
setts Horticultural Society. Robert Fortune was sending from 
China such valuable subjects as Weigela rosea, Fortune's yellow 
rose, Anemone Japonica, Forsythia viridissima, the white wis- 
taria and the common bleeding heart, Dielytra spectabilis. This 
last named plant, which did not reach America until about 1850, 



xii INTRODUCTION 

was exhibited by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society two 
years later, when it created little less than a sensation. 

General H. A. S. Dearborn of Roxbury was the first President 
of the newly organized Society, which was ambitious from the 
first and soon found itself the owner of a cemetery and a test 
garden, both in Cambridge. The cemetery was Mount Auburn, 
where now sleep many of the country's most illustrious dead. It 
was the first public cemetery in America and formed the pattern 
for all those which have come since. Before that time cemeteries 
had been laid out in the shadow of a church or within the confines 
of a city. 

The management of the cemetery soon became a major financial 
undertaking, however, seriously interfering with the Society's 
more normal activities. After a few years, therefore, a separation 
was made, but with the provision that one-fourth of the receipts 
from lots sold should accrue to the parent organization. That very 
favorable arrangement has been continued until the present day, 
although it cannot be expected to provide much revenue in the 
future, as it does not apply to lots in parts of the cemetery more 
recently acquired. The payments received from the Mount Auburn 
Cemetery Association were permitted to accumulate as a fund 
until the amount had reached $55,053.52. Since then they have 
been used against annual expenses. The test garden was soon 
abandoned, too, as it was becoming a source of contention, both 
as to management and the disposition of the garden's products. 

Exhibitions were held almost from the beginning in such small 
halls as could be found, with occasional public meetings in 
Faneuil Hall. However, by 1845 tne Society was bold enough to 
erect a $40,000 building on School Street — the first Horticultural 
Hall. Stores on the ground floor helped defray the expenses 
and this was true when the second Horticultural Hall was built. 
Located on Tremont street, this was a much larger and more 
ornate structure, costing $240,000. It soon gained fame by reason 
of three huge granite statues of Ceres, Pomona and Flora, which 
adorned the front of the building and the ultimate fate of which 
has long been a subject of debate. In the meantime the Society, 
seeking larger exhibition space, had conducted three Flower 
Shows in a great tent on Boston Common. These Shows proved 



INTRODUCTION xiii 

very popular, but the constant threat of rain led to their dis- 
continuance. 

The Tremont Street building served the Society for thirty-five 
years from 1863, DUt after a time there came a lack of exhibi- 
tion space in the second-floor hall. Then, as a forerunner of what 
was to come in later years, the Society went to Mechanics Build- 
ing for a Show in 1887, the American Pomological Society co- 
operating. 

At the same time the Librarian began to complain that all his 
shelf space was being used up. The Trustees began looking 
around. A petition to the legislature for permission to buy land 
in the Back Bay was rejected. An energetic effort was made to 
obtain permission to erect a new Horticultural Hall within the 
confines of Boston Common but the city council refused to agree 
to such a plan. 

Then, some years later, the Society again cast its eyes in the 
direction of the Back Bay. The present site was purchased, albeit 
with much grumbling on the part of members who thought it was 
too far out in the country. Soon the third Horticultural Hall came 
into being — as handsome a building as the city can boast, ad- 
mirably situated and rivaled only by the new Hall of the Royal 
Horticultural Society in London. 

In that first one hundred years the Society had twenty-eight 
Presidents. In the quarter of a century following it has had but 
three. The Society has been active in promoting every phase of 
horticulture. It has assisted in the introduction of new flowers, 
fruits and vegetables by the hundreds. It had much to do with 
establishing the nation-wide movement for children's gardens. It 
has contributed consistently to the horticultural literature of 
the country. Indeed, its history is interwoven with that of all 
American horticulture. 

The Society's work was badly handicapped by World War I 
and in 1923 it had only a thousand members who had paid their 
dues. A ten dollar initiation fee was the stumbling block at that 
time. It had been imposed in lieu of increased annual dues, which 
were pegged at two dollars by the Society's charter, but it was a 
move that had defeated its own ends. With this ten dollar charge 
removed, which soon came about, and with a more aggressive 



xiv INTRODUCTION 

policy, embracing a great Spring Exhibition, the newly-purchased 
magazine Horticulture and a greatly broadened Library service, 
there came a rapid acceleration of all the Society's activities. So 
began an era of growth and progress beyond anything the Society 
had known before and of it this writer can happily say, "All of 
which I saw and a part of which I was." 



1929 — YEAR OF MIXED EMOTIONS 

A LBERT E. BENSON'S admirable history of the first 100 

/ \ years of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society closed 
JL jL with a graphic description of the great Centennial Ex- 
hibition at Mechanics Building in March of 1929. The history of 
the succeeding quarter century must begin therefore in the late 
Spring of that year. The Centennial Exhibition was so great a 
success that the sum of $30,000 was set aside by the Trustees as 
a special fund to be drawn upon in the event that a future show 
suffered a loss. 

One hundred special Centennial Medals struck from a die 
modeled by John Paramino of Boston were awarded during and 
after the Show, the first one going to President Burrage. 

Centennial Medals were sent to T. A. Havemeyer and Freder- 
ick Newbold, President and Secretary respectively of the Horti- 
cultural Society of New York, and to John C. Wister, Secretary 
of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society. The Society noted 
with regret the death of James Boyd, President of the Pennsyl- 
vania Society, whose relations with the Massachusetts Society 
had been most cordial, and who was known as a skilled amateur 
horticulturist, having a special interest in peonies. 

Before the end of the year satisfaction at the success of the 
Show was tempered by the passing of Thomas H. Roland, who, 
more than any one else, had been responsible for the decision to 
hold the Show. Mr. Roland had been a Trustee for twenty-one 
years and was always active in the Society's affairs. He came to 
this country from England as a young man, located in Nahant 
and developed an extensive greenhouse business, often being 
called the best plantsman in America. He had great influence in 
horticultural circles throughout the country, was a member of 
many organizations and highly successful as an exhibitor, espe- 
cially when showing cypripedium orchids, of which he was very 



2 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

fond. Ernest H. Wilson wrote of him in the 1930 Year Book as 
follows: "Profound of thought, a stickler for law and principle, 
Thomas Roland was sagacious and courteous, and as a rule won 
over those opposed to his views. He will be remembered as a 
great plantsman, a wise counsellor, a loyal and generous friend." 

Mr. Wilson, another Englishman, and Mr. Roland were close 
friends and liked nothing better than to spend an evening together 
at Locke-Ober's restaurant talking British politics. They sup- 
ported opposing parties and the debate waxed heated at times, 
although it always ended with a laugh, a handshake and the best 
of good will. 

Mr. Roland was conservative by nature and protested vigor- 
ously to the Secretary because he had assigned the basement room 
to the garden clubs when they first began to exhibit at Horti- 
cultural Hall. The Secretary could not well retreat, but the 
garden clubs did so well that their critic was delighted. Soon he 
became their warm champion and the next year they exhibited 
on the street floor. Mr. Roland was a charter member of the 
Horticultural Club of Boston. Death came to this unusual man 
on December n, when he was in his 67th year. The funeral was 
held in his greenhouse at Nahant and was attended by prominent 
men and women from many parts of the country. 

At the inaugural meeting in January President Burrage had 
given the Society the sum of $1,250 to establish a porch competi- 
tion. It was stipulated that the porch should be constructed dur- 
ing the year as an addition to a dwelling already standing and 
that it must overlook a garden. The first award was made to Ben: 
Perley Poore Moseley of Ipswich for an attractive porch overlook- 
ing both a garden and the sea, and surmounted by a miniature 
beacon light, making possible the enjoyment of the garden at night. 

The George Robert White Medal of Honor for 1929 went 
abroad, being awarded to Miss Gertrude Jekyll, V.M.H., whose 
influence on gardening had grown world-wide in the course of her 
eighty-six years. 

The Jackson Dawson Memorial Medal was awarded to Charles 
Sander for his work in hybridizing woody plants. Mr. Sander was 
Professor Charles S. Sargent's superintendent for many years and 
a man of great skill as a gardener. The Thomas Roland Medal 



YEAR OF MIXED EMOTIONS 3 

was given to Frank R. Pierson for his exceptional skill as a horti- 
culturist. He was the owner of an extensive florist establishment 
in Tarrytown, N. Y. 

It was voted at the annual meeting in 1929 to consolidate the 
George Robert White, Jackson Dawson and Thomas Roland 
Medal committees and a single committee has continued to act 
since that time. 

Garden awards were as follows: 

A Gold Medal to Mrs. Gustavus D. Parker, for her estate at Wianno. 
A Silver Medal to Mr. and Mrs. Harry T. Hayward, for their estate at 

Franklin. 
A Silver Medal to Mrs. L. Carteret Fenno, for her wild garden at 

Rowley. 
A Bronze Medal to Mr. and Mrs. Henry B. Pennell, Cohasset, for a 

small Italian garden. 
Garden Certificates to Paul Frost of Cambridge, and to Mrs. Frederick 

Hussey of Salem. 

A $500 Gold Cup offered in the name of the Society was 
awarded to Mr. and Mrs. Burrage at the Autumn Flower Show 
for a magnificent group of stove and greenhouse flowering and 
foliage plants. 

Nathaniel T. Kidder, Chairman of the Library Committee, re- 
ported to the Trustees in June that Mr. Benson had completed 
the history of the Society. Printing was finished in December 
and distribution began at once. Two thousand five hundred copies 
were printed. This book is a handsome piece of work with excel- 
lent illustrations and a total of 500 pages. Copies are still avail- 
able as this is written at the price of one dollar. 

Samuel J. Goddard of Framingham was made a Trustee to fill 
the vacancy caused by the death of Mr. Roland. James Methven 
was elected a Trustee at the annual meeting. 

A somewhat unexpected result of transferring the Spring 
Flower Show to Mechanics Building was a sharp falling off in 
the number of books borrowed for reading at home. Soon after 
the Show, however, the Librarian became normally busy again. 
The Library added 282 volumes in 1929, making a total of about 
25,000 books and bound periodicals on the shelves. In Novem- 



4 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

ber the Librarian, Miss Dorothy S. Manks, was sent to Wash- 
ington to study the methods being followed in the Library of the 
United States Department of Agriculture. 

The repairing of rare books, begun in 1928 with Miss Irene M. 
Tilden in charge, was continued in 1929 and was to go on for 
many years. Indeed, is still going on as this is written. An un- 
expected discovery was made in the course of work on Brunfels' 
Herbarum Vivae Eicones. The volume had stood on the shelves 
for years without receiving special attention. Unusual panelled 
depressions in the board covers aroused Miss Tilden's curiosity 
and led to the bringing to light of the very old and probably 
original leather sides. The book itself, just 425 years old, is one 
of the best examples of 16th century plant books, and the early 
binding adds to both the interest and the financial value of this 
copy. 

The necrology list for the year came as a shock, with the loss 
of twenty-five life members and forty annual members. Special 
mention must be made of the death of T. D. Hatfield, superin- 
tendent for Henry Sargent Hunnewell in Wellesley. Mr. Hatfield 
was a very able gardener and a skilled hybridizer. The Hatfield 
yew came from him, as did the Louisa Hunnewell azalea. He 
served for many years as a judge at the Society's shows. 

The number of life members who passed away focussed atten- 
tion on the fact that life members were being lost to the Society 
faster than they were being replaced. At the time, the total mem- 
bership included only 829 life members, whereas as many as 300 
life members had been added in a single year in the old days. 
However, in those days the list of annual members was small. 
Growth began when the iniation fee of ten dollars was removed 
in the early days of Mr. Burrage's administration, the only re- 
quirement after that being the payment of the regular annual fee 
of two dollars. The membership increased rather rapidly then, 
but not until 1929 were as many as 1244 new names added to the 
roster in a single year. At the end of 1929 the total membership 
had reached 5,652. 

It was pleasant to find the Royal Horticultural Society in 
London recognizing the anniversary celebration of the Massachu- 



YEAR OF MIXED EMOTIONS 5 

setts organization with an engraved salutation which read as 
follows : 

To the President and Council of the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society; 

In the name of and on behalf of the Royal Horticultural Society, we 
desire to send greetings and congratulations to our friends and colleagues 
of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society on the occasion of the cele- 
bration of its centenary. We venture to express the belief that this occa- 
sion is a significant mark in the progress of horticulture and the hope 
that the Society will ever prosper and extend its influence for the benefit 
of mankind. 

The balance sheet at the end of the year showed a total income 
of $88,928.07. Total expenditures were $50,248.31. The actual 
profit on the year's operations was $38,268.30. There was a loss 
of $1,441.51 on the Autumn Show. Horticulture had a loss of 
$411.46. A balance of $8,268.30 was transferred to the earned 
income account. As noted, $30,000 had previously been set aside 
for the establishment of a Show Insurance Fund. 

These figures are interesting because they are very much 
greater than those reported at any previous meeting, due, of 
course, to the great Centennial Exhibition. They did not con- 
tinue on this level. 



1930— A PRINCELY GIFT AND A TRAGEDY 

A LBERT C. BURRAGE began his tenth term as President 
L\ of the Society at the inaugural meeting January 13, 
JL JL 1930, having been chosen for this office more often than 
any previous incumbent. The pertinent way in which he presented 
Society problems to the members and the lucid manner in which 
he explained current situations caused his annual addresses to 
be anticipated with interest. At this meeting he discussed rather 
frankly certain matters which had been on his mind for some 
time. Among other things he said: 

"Some of us, during the past ten years that I have been a Trustee, 
have had one goal in mind: to live to see the day when it would be 
acknowledged that this Society is truly representative, not only of 
the district in which it is situated, but also of the principal horticultural 
interests of the state. 

"Just as we have altered our By-Laws to force into the Board some 
new blood each year, so we ought to see, somehow, that the same plan 
will be applied to committees and judges, lest we fall into ruts and dis- 
courage the younger generation who also wish honors and can do good 
work." 

After thanking certain members of the Board and various em- 
ployes for what they had accomplished in the year just over, Mr. 
Bur rage continued as follows: 

"I hope for the day when every committeeman will be present at the 
beginning of the meeting, and not delay his fellow members. 

"I hope for the day when every Trustee, unless prevented by ill- 
ness, will attend every meeting of the Board of Trustees. 

"I hope for the day when Horticulture will have the courage to 
refuse to print any advertisement or notice of any horticultural product 
or plant which its editors believe exaggerated, untrue or misleading. 

"I hope for the day when the writers of thoughtful and helpful 
articles in Horticulture will be as highly paid as the authors of such 
articles by any other horticultural magazine in the world. 



A PRINCELY GIFT AND A TRAGEDY 7 

"I hope for the day when every exhibitor, in simple justice to his 
co-exhibitors, to the judges and to the Society, will have his exhibits 
absolutely ready at the hour set for the clearing of the hall, so that 
exhibits can be seen while they are perfectly fresh. 

"I hope for the day when the vegetable and fruit growers will show 
their best products — as they did 50 years ago — and when, after 
such showing, they will feel repaid for coming, both by the visitors and 
by the prizes they win. 

"I hope for the day when each Spring we shall see great clusters of 
blooms of flowering crabs, covering acres along the railroads of this 
state. 

"I hope for the day very soon when we shall have constantly on the 
road in the open season under an assistant Librarian, a traveling horti- 
cultural library of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, in a large, 
low automobile truck containing a really large, live, working and con- 
sulting Library of horticultural books going from one town to another 
where such libraries do not and cannot exist, stopping for a few days 
to give people an opportunity to consult the Library." 

The changes in the By-Laws to which the President referred 
had been made after several meetings of a special committee of 
the Trustees to consider this action. The changes required that 
the annual meeting should be held the first Monday in May at 
3 p.m. and that the Officers and Trustees elected should take 
office immediately, the inaugural meeting of former years being 
given up. They provided for the election of a President to serve 
one year, two Vice Presidents to serve two years but to be elected 
alternately, the junior becoming senior at the beginning of his 
second year, the former senior becoming junior again if reelected. 
Five Trustees were to be elected each year with at least one new 
member elected to the Board at each annual meeting, thus bring- 
ing a new face and perhaps more than one to the Trustees' table 
each Spring. Nominations were to be made by a committee consist- 
ing of those Trustees who had more than one but less than two 
years to serve. 1 

That change in the By-Laws which combined the annual meet- 
ing and the inaugural meeting and fixed the date as the first 

*As this committee comes into being automatically and as the expiration of 
the term of each Trustee is indicated in the Year Book, it becomes easy to 
determine the personnel of the next Nominating Committee. 



8 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

Monday in May was adopted largely through the efforts of Mr. 
Wilson, it being his last major contribution to the good of the 
Society, as his untimely death came later in the year. Under the 
old plan the Exhibition Committee, which arranged the great 
Spring Flower Show, was likely to have its membership changed 
the first of January. This meant that one committee might make 
up the schedule and perfect the other arrangements for the Show, 
while a different committee, in part at least, might be faced with 
the task of carrying out decisions which it had not had a part in 
formulating. Under the amended By-Laws the committee ap- 
pointed immediately after the annual meeting would be able to 
see the Spring Show through. 

At this meeting a letter from the President, Albert C. Burrage, 
was read by the Treasurer, John S. Ames, offering the Society 
the sum of $50,000, the income from $30,000 of this amount to 
be used exclusively for the purchase of books and pamphlets re- 
lating directly or indirectly to horticulture. The income from 
the amount remaining was to be used exclusively for the purchase 
of a Gold Vase to be awarded by the Trustees of the Society at a 
meeting in December of each year for the most outstanding ex- 
hibit in any of the Shows of the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society held during the year. 

No sooner had the applause occasioned by Mr. Burrage's 
princely gift died away than it was rekindled by Mr. Ames when 
he read another letter, this one from William N. Craig, offering 
the sum of $2,500 to be used for increasing interest in lilies, the 
income to be expended for premiums, lectures or for recognizing 
in some suitable manner the work of hybridists and collectors, 
as well as for good culture in garden or greenhouse. 

With business conditions poor, the Trustees decided to hold the 
1930 Spring Show in Horticultural Hall, with the garden clubs 
occupying the Lecture Hall. All the halls were well filled with 
exhibits and the attendance was sufficiently large to give a profit 
of $10,404.89. 

Following this Show the Trustees took important action on a 
matter which had long been discussed by the private gardeners 
— the awards which they should receive at the various exhibitions. 
What had come to them in the past as a reward for the extra 



A PRINCELY GIFT AND A TRAGEDY 9 

work required of them had depended on the generosity or fair- 
ness of their employers or on what the Prize Committee spe- 
cifically voted them. Henceforth they were to be rewarded on the 
basis of the awards to their employers. Thus they were to know 
in advance what to expect from the Society if the exhibits they 
set up were awarded cups or medals. The details were to be 
printed in the schedule, and the compensation to the gardeners by 
this arrangement was to be in cash. The plan was satisfactory to 
employers and gardeners alike, but it increased somewhat the 
Society's appropriation for prizes. 2 

Loring Underwood, who became a Trustee in 1927, passed 
away January 13, at the age of 55. Mr. Underwood was a well 
known landscape architect, an author and lecturer, and an active 
representative of his profession on the Board of Trustees. Joseph 
E. Chandler was elected a Trustee to fill the vacancy caused by 
Mr. Underwood's death. 

Dr. Wilson's tragic death and that of his wife came on Wed- 
nesday, October 15, when his automobile skidded and plunged 
over a forty-foot embankment near the city of Worcester. The 
couple were returning from a visit to their daughter Mrs. Muriel 
Slate at Geneva, N. Y., where Professor Slate is connected with 
the State Experimental Station. A double funeral was held the 
following Sunday in Trinity Church, Boston, with a large attend- 
ance of prominent men and women. The bodies were cremated 
at Forest Hills Cemetery and the ashes interred in Mt. Royal 
Cemetery in Montreal, Canada, of which Dr. Wilson's close 
friend, W. Ormiston Roy, was in charge. 

Dr. Wilson was born in England in 1876, educated at Kew, and 
spent some twenty years of his life traveling in China, Japan, 
Formosa, Korea, South Africa, Australia, India and other coun- 
tries in search of plant material or on various scientific missions. 
All except his first two trips to China were made in the interest 
of the Arnold Arboretum. He was assistant to Professor Charles 
S. Sargent and succeeded him as the executive in charge of the 
Arnold Arboretum. 

Dr. Wilson was very active in the affairs of the Massachusetts 

2 The details of this plan, still in effect, will be found in the Society's Rule 
Book, available to all. 



io TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

Horticultural Society, being Chairman of the Exhibition Commit- 
tee and the Committee on Lectures and Publications. He was 
Advisory Editor of Horticulture and contributed frequently to its 
columns. His knowledge of plant material was profound and 
based largely on personal observation. His memory was almost 
uncanny and his ability to interpret scientific matters in the 
language of the layman gave his books and magazine articles a 
human touch missing in the writings of many scientists. Many 
awards had come to Dr. Wilson in recognition of his services, 
among them the Victoria Medal of Honour, the Veitch Memorial 
Medal, the George Robert White Medal of Honor, the Geoffrey 
St. Hilaire Gold Medal and the Rhododendron Society's Cup. 

Dr. Wilson, who liked to be called "Keeper" of the Arnold 
Arboretum, using an English appellation, was often referred to 
as "Chinese" Wilson because of the long years he spent in the 
Chinese hinterlands. Some of his adventures, including his dis- 
covery of the Regal Lily at the expense of a broken leg, are 
recorded in his books, but he was too modest to indulge in heroics. 
His books contribute splendidly to horticultural literature but 
unfortunately have not had the circulation they deserve. Some 
of them might well be reprinted. Dr. Wilson was a Fellow of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences, an honorary M.A. of 
Harvard University and as recently as the previous June had been 
given the D.Sc. degree by Trinity College, Hartford, Conn. He 
ranked high among the plant hunters of all time, but he was a 
scientist, too, and an excellent administrator. 

William Penn Rich, for twenty-one years, until 1923, Secretary 
and Librarian of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, died 
Sunday, November 1, at his home in Chelsea. Mr. Rich was a 
member of the New England Botanical Club and much interested 
in the school garden work fostered by the Horticultural Society. 
For a year after his resignation Mr. Rich came to the Hall regu- 
larly to help the new Secretary in picking up the threads of the 
Society's activities. Suitable resolutions on his death were adopted 
by the Board of Trustees and spread on the records. 

In the course of the year the Library staff began the work of 
indexing certain magazines to make possible easier access to 
valuable information which otherwise might remain unused. Mr. 



A PRINCELY GIFT AND A TRAGEDY n 

Kidder, then Chairman of the Library Committee, felt that the 
Library had undertaken nothing so ambitious or so fundamental 
in a quarter of a century. 

Fred A. Wilson of Nahant was a Trustee of the Society for 
several years and the Year Book of 1930 contained a remarkable 
paper written by him entitled "The Influence of Certain Eco- 
nomic Plants" which has often been reread and commented on. 
This Year Book also contained a paper, "Mutations and Varia- 
tions in the Gladiolus" by Eugene N. Fischer. It was illustrated 
with twelve drawings by Mr. Fischer, who was an artist, and 
received much attention. Mr. Fischer, a modest, retiring man, was 
an exhibitor for many years. 

At the 1930 Gladiolus Show the first award from the William 
N. Craig Fund was made, the recipient being Mrs. E. V. Hart- 
ford of Newport, R. I., for a splendid exhibit of lilies staged by 
her gardener, Joseph Winsock. 

Mrs. Robert Stone, wife of one of the Trustees, began offering 
a prize through the Society in 1930 as an incentive to the making 
of back-yard gardens in a poor section of the city not far from 
Horticultural Hall. The prize, $100, was in memory of Galen L. 
Stone. The Secretary and his assistant, Paul Frese, gave much 
attention to this project, collaborating with the Boston Tubercu- 
losis Association and the Better Homes Association. The neigh- 
borhood in which the work was started might be called a slum 
area. Narrow alleys through which trucks could not pass were 
cluttered with refuse and back yards were piled high with mate- 
rial which should have been carted away but which remained as 
a dangerous nuisance. 

The transformation brought about even the first year was 
astonishing. Many tenants found a way to clean up their yards 
and to plant them with annual flowers and with vines. Mrs. Stone 
and the Secretary helped distribute prizes at a largely attended 
meeting in the Fall. This undertaking has been carried on con- 
tinuously since this small beginning, with highly gratifying re- 
sults. 3 

"Miss Bernice Billings of the Boston Tuberculosis Association has been the 
guiding spirit of this work and her efforts eventually won for her a special award 
from the Massachusetts Federation of Garden Clubs. 



12 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

The George Robert White Medal of Honor for 1930 was 
awarded to David G. Grandison Fairchild of Washington, D. C. 
Mr. Fairchild had had a long career with the Department of 
Agriculture, having been in charge of foreign explorations since 
1903. 

The Jackson Dawson Memorial Medal was awarded to William 
Anderson, Superintendent of the Bayard Thayer estate in South 
Lancaster, where he had raised many thousand kalmias and 
Taxus media Thayerae. He had succeeded in naturalizing acres 
of Scotch heather and had proved himself a skillful propagator. 
He served the Society in various capacities for many years. 

Carl Purdy of Ukiah, California, received the Thomas Roland 
Medal. Mr. Purdy was well known for his work in the introduc- 
tion of Pacific Coast plants to the Eastern States and to Europe. 
Mr. Purdy came East to give a lecture in Horticultural Hall on 
November 6, and the Medal was presented to him by the Secre- 
tary at that time. 

At a meeting of the Board of Trustees in December, 1930, it 
was voted to award the Albert C. Burrage Gold Vase to Mr. Bur- 
rage himself for the magnificent orchid exhibit which he staged 
at the Spring Show. At the same meeting the Society's large Gold 
Medal was awarded to Mrs. Catherine S. Eastwood of Attleboro 
for her work in the development of school gardens. Mrs. East- 
wood began this work in 1893 and conducted it every Summer 
for thirty-seven years with the exception of one year spent in 
Europe. The Deerfield Street garden in Boston, managed by her 
for the Women's Municipal League, had exhibited many times 
in Horticultural Hall and in 1930 received first prize for its 
garden display at the Children's Show. 

Many parts of the state were visited by the Committee on Gar- 
dens in 1930. Faulkner Farm, the estate of Mr. and Mrs. Edward 
D. Brandegee, was chosen for the Society's Gold Medal, a natural 
choice, for it was considered one of the best developed and most 
interesting estates in Greater Boston. 

"Stonover," a beautiful estate in Lenox, won a Silver Medal 
for Miss Mary Parsons. It was a place which had been developed 
along natural lines with many magnificent trees. 

Winthrop Ames was given a Silver Medal for his estate in 



A PRINCELY GIFT AND A TRAGEDY 13 

North Easton called "Queset" from the Indian name of a stream 
running through it. Among its features were topiary figures pro- 
duced by training the small-leaved euonymus creeper over wire 
frames. The inner frames had rusted away but the interlaced 
vines continued to support themselves in the original shapes. 

It had been unusual up to that time for a garden medal to be 
awarded to an institution, but the Garden Committee felt, in 
1930, that the Massachusetts Institute of Technology had done 
a notable piece of work in the landscaping and planting of the 
grounds around the house of the President, on the banks of the 
Charles River in Cambridge. It was decided to recognize this 
work by the award of a Bronze Medal. The planting, largely of 
evergreens, had been done so successfully and with such skill 
that it could be pointed out as a model for similar work on the 
grounds of other educational institutions. Miss Mabel Keyes 
Babcock of Boston was the landscape architect. 

Other awards included a Bronze Medal to Mrs. Gertrude I. 
Titus for a hillside garden in Swampscott; a Garden Certificate 
to Mrs. Tracey Eustis of Marblehead for a unique garden at a 
summer home; a Garden Certificate to Mrs. George O. Forbes 
for a summer garden in North Egremont. The Porch Fund cre- 
ated by Mr. Burrage in 1929 was drawn upon for a Gold Medal 
award to Mr. and Mrs. H. J. Robinson in Needham for a porch 
built in 1930 and facing an attractive garden. The porch was 
made by replacing a series of windows from which the garden 
had previously been viewed. 

John S. Ames, the Society's very efficient Treasurer, had a 
satisfactory report to make at the end of the year. The income 
had exceeded expenditures by $2,918.86, and this sum was trans- 
ferred to the earned income account. It included $1,477 trans- 
ferred from Horticulture's account to the Society's general in- 
come. The sum of $5,000 from the Spring Show profit had been 
merged with the Show Insurance Fund. Because of many com- 
plaints the Trustees had voted to discontinue the practice of 
opening the Hall for rummage sales. 

This was the last year the Society was to operate under the 
rules adopted in 1904, which called for an annual meeting in 
November and an inaugural meeting the following January. 



i 9 3 1— PASSING OF A GREAT BENEFACTOR 

THE Society suffered a severe loss for the third successive 
year when its President, Albert C. Burrage, passed away 
suddenly at his summer home in Manchester. This was in 
June, 1 93 1, shortly after he had been elected President for the 
eleventh time, having held the office for a longer period than 
any previous President in the Society's history. When he assumed 
office the Society had only about 900 members and when he died 
it had almost 7,000, the largest number in its history and the 
largest of any similar organization in this country. All the ac- 
tivities of the Society were developed to a remarkable degree in 
his administration. He was President when the Society acquired 
Horticulture and did much to aid in the expansion of that publi- 
cation. He gave freely of his time and wealth in the development 
of the exhibitions of the Society, his own exhibits being of a 
character which won recognition throughout the world. He was 
largely responsible for a great orchid exhibition in March, 1920. 
On that occasion his own exhibit occupied an entire floor of one 
hall and was arranged to reproduce natural conditions. 

In May, 192 1, he put on an exhibition of wild flowers and 
ferns which has never been equalled in this country. The large 
hall became a mountain gorge, at one end of which a waterfall 
tumbled and dashed over its rocky bed into a large shady pool, 
from which a brook flowed under a rustic bridge and on through 
the glade. Nearly 83,000 people saw this exhibition — a figure 
never before approached by the Society. 

In 192 1 Mr. Burrage was given the George Robert White 
Medal of Honor "in recognition of his conspicuous services to 
horticulture by the establishment in Beverly of the greatest col- 
lection of Orchids the new world has yet seen; for his skillful and 
energetic management of the Society and for his labors to in- 
crease the love, protection, and cultivation of New England wild 



A PRINCELY GIFT AND A TRAGEDY 15 

flowers and ferns through his remarkable exhibition of these 
plants." 

Mr. Burrage had a prominent part in the great orchid show 
which was held in 1923 with the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society acting as host to the American Orchid Society. Mr. Bur- 
rage filled the large hall with contributions of such supreme merit 
and educational value that Gurney Wilson of the Royal Horti- 
cultural Society, who acted as one of the judges, returned to 
England with a report which won that Society's Gold Medal for 
Mr. Burrage, the first time it had ever been awarded for an 
American exhibit. 

Mr. Burrage had an important part in making the Centennial 
Exhibition of the Society in Mechanics Building in 1929. 

He, of course, had many diversified interests, being connected 
with many business enterprises. Before turning to horticulture as 
a hobby he built up one of the finest private collections of miner- 
als to be found in America. In his later years, however, the Mass- 
achusetts Horticultural Society was very dear to his heart and 
received a large amount of his time and attention, the results 
being seen in its greatly increased membership and prosperity. 

Mr. Burrage's gift of $50,000 to the Society for books and a 
Gold Vase has already been noted, as well as the Porch Fund 
established in 1929. The Albert Cameron Burrage Fund of $1,200 
for promoting the cranberry industry in Massachusetts was estab- 
lished in 1920. In his will he bequeathed his Library of 2,000 
books, largely dealing with orchids, to the Society. A committee 
of Trustees, with William C. Endicott as Chairman, was ap- 
pointed to draw up resolutions on the loss of Mr. Burrage to the 
Society. 

Anticipating the need of additional Library space in view of 
the books bequeathed to the Society by Mr. Burrage, a new 
room of ample proportions was constructed on the top floor of 
the building. It was an undertaking of some importance, for 
building regulations required the installation of several long iron 
girders to support the concrete floor. These alterations cost about 
$4,500, this amount being taken from the profits of the Spring 
Show. As a matter of fact, Mr. Burrage's Library was not to be 
received for several years, but in the meantime abundant use 



1 6 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

for the new room was found. It served particularly well for 
storing the Society's very complete collection of trade catalogues, 
a collection constantly growing. 

Several important improvements to the building were made 
during Mr. Burrage's term of office. One involved removing a 
circular iron staircase which led from an ante-room behind the 
Lecture Hall on the street floor to a room just above, which was 
used originally as a kitchen, with dumb waiters for sending food 
down. This kitchen as such had long been abandoned but was 
discovered to have been used on occasions for making alcoholic 
beverages by someone who had access to it, but all unknown of 
course to the officials of the Society. Mr. Burrage proposed that 
this room be connected by a short flight of stairs with a room 
on the floor above adjoining the Library, so that it might be 
used as a Library annex, accommodating large number of seldom- 
used books. This was done, to the great benefit of the Library. 

Another improvement was the construction of a broad stairway 
from the main exhibition hall to the basement hall, thus making 
the latter more accessible and increasing the exhibition space. 
Mr. Burrage himself paid for this work. 

What had been known as the document room on the mezzanine 
floor was transformed into a large committee room by laying a 
new floor, constructing a cement tile-like ceiling and hanging 
wide folding doors. The documents which had been housed there 
were transferred to a long, narrow room partitioned off from the 
second-floor storage room, where they were much more accessible. 

A long room which the Secretary had been occupying was 
divided to make two rooms, one of which was assigned to the 
Secretary's assistant, while the other was taken over by the 
Wild Flower Preservation Society of which Mrs. S. V. R. Crosby 
was President, with Miss Lilly Tobey as her assistant. An unused 
air shaft adjoining this room was made into a large supply 
closet, thus adding to the facilities of this very active organiza- 
tion. The Secretary of the Society then took up quarters in a 
large, square room which had originally been assigned to the 
Treasurer of the Society but which was seldom used. 

Other changes were made at the rear of the building on the 
second floor to provide facilities for a business staff which had 



PASSING OF A GREAT BENEFACTOR 17 

become necessary with the rapid growth of the Society. Finally 
a passenger elevator was installed, much smaller than desired 
but limited in size because the only space available for it was 
also limited. This is the only answer that can be given to criticism 
of the elevator service sometimes voiced. 

Now to turn to other matters of interest in 1931. The Society 
went back to Mechanics Building for the Spring Flower Show, 
the dates being March 1 7-2 1 . It was a well attended Show and 
made a profit of $21,604.32 in spite of adverse circumstances. 
In his report on this Show the Chairman of the Prize Committee, 
Samuel J. Goddard, said, "Never before has the Society con- 
ducted an exhibition that covered such a variety of displays with 
choice material in orchids, tropical and cool greenhouse plants, 
wild and woodland scenes, Spring and Summer gardens, Alpine 
and rock gardens, along with artistic and tasteful arrangements 
which were outstanding. " These encomiums must have been de- 
served, for Mr. Goddard had had long experience in show work 
and was not given to exaggeration. It was agreed that the roses 
were better than usual and the carnations were shown in con- 
tainers other than vases, thus falling in with a new vogue in 
the display of these flowers. 

A plan for dividing the responsibility for the Dahlia Show 
with the New England Dahlia Society and for the Gladiolus Show 
with the New England Gladiolus Society was now being tried 
out. It worked well and later was extended by turning over these 
shows and the Iris Show to the interested societies, the Horti- 
cultural Society giving them all its facilities. 

The Autumn Show assumed new proportions in 1931, with 
chrysanthemums and carnations appearing in greater numbers. 
However, the President's Cup went to Dr. Walter G. Kendall for 
a unique display of hardy grapes, said by many persons to sur- 
pass anything of the kind they had previously seen in the Hall. 
Incidentally, the award of a President's Cup was now restricted 
to the Spring and Autumn Shows and later was to be confined 
to the Spring Show alone. 

An innovation at the Exhibition of the Products of Children's 
Gardens was the showing of films in the lower hall while the 
other halls were cleared for judging. This plan provided enter- 



18 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

tainment for the children during the tedious waiting period and 
prevented the expenditure of their abundant energies in other 
ways. The plan was so successful that it became standard pro- 
cedure. 

This was the first year in which the annual meeting was held 
in May, as required by the changes in the By-Laws, and the elec- 
tion of officers became somewhat involved. Mr. Burrage was 
elected President, his term to run from December 31, 1931, to 
May 2, 1932. Oaks Ames became a Vice President, his term to 
run from December 31, 1931, to May 1, 1933. Five Trustees 
were chosen to serve from December 31, 1931, to May 7, 1934. 
They were Mrs. S. V. R. Crosby, Walter Hunnewell, Robert G. 
Stone, Hugh Bancroft, and George Butterworth. 

Earlier in the year Ernest B. Dane had been selected by the 
Board to fill out the unexpired term of Dr. Wilson. When Mr. 
Webster became President, following the death of Mr. Burrage, 
Walter Hunnewell, who was chosen to succeed him as Vice Presi- 
dent, was succeeded on the Board by Albert C. Burrage, Jr. 

At an important meeting of the new Board of Trustees it was 
voted on recommendation of the Committee on Exhibitions that 
the Secretary be given an assistant whose work should deal 
primarily with the Shows, giving the Secretary more time for 
executive duties, which were becoming increasingly heavy. James 
Greehan was appointed to the position. Mr. Greehan had been 
with Lord & Burnham greenhouse builders, and was well known 
to the trade. 

For several years a parcel of land at the corner of Brookline 
and Longwood avenues had been held for the benefit of the 
Society by certain individuals and estates with the thought in 
mind that a new building might be erected on it, but this idea 
having been abandoned, the land was sold in 1931. A special 
committee appointed to report on the subject had recommended 
that the Society remain in its present quarters, inasmuch as they 
occupied a superior location and should meet the needs of the 
members and the public for many years. It was pointed out that 
the theatre next door would doubtless be removed at some future 
time, giving way to an extension of the park facing the First 




Albert C. Burr age, President from 1Q21 to 1931 




Edwin S. Webster, President from 1931 to 1Q44 



PASSING OF A GREAT BENEFACTOR 19 

Church of Christ, Scientist, and maintained by that organization, 
thus greatly improving the position of Horticultural Hall. 

The Library was provided with new lights in 1931, while new 
display racks made the magazines more accessible to readers. 
The number of libraries and institutions with which information 
was being exchanged had grown in two years from sixteen to 
forty-eight. The most significant of the new contacts was an 
invitation from the Library of Congress to be represented in its 
Union Catalogues, a record of the location of books of value to 
students. A new and long-needed shelf list of the Library was 
undertaken. 

It was interesting to find that Horticulture's circulation con- 
tinued to grow in spite of poor business conditions and that 
neither the New York or Pennsylvania Societies had fallen be- 
hind in the number of their subscriptions. However, it became 
necessary to reduce the size of the paper because of the shrinkage 
in advertising receipts. 1 

A new bulletin on begonias by Mrs. H. H. Buxton of Peabody 
was issued in 1931, the most complete treatise on these plants 
which had been published to that time in this country. The 
Society's bulletins had a ready sale at the Flower Shows and 
aided in disseminating much important information. 

The Society's large Gold Medal was awarded from the Hunne- 
well Fund to Mr. and Mrs. John S. Ames for their estate in 
North Easton, notable for its great trees, sweeping lawns, beauti- 
ful vistas and for magnificent planting along the banks of a 
pond, where azaleas in variety were used exceptionally well. 
Special attention was called to the greenhouses and to Mr. Ames' 
conspicuous success in the cultivation of Kurume azaleas under 
glass. Mr. Ames was the first person to exhibit these azaleas in 
the eastern states, plants having been sent to him from Kurume 
in Japan by Mr. Wilson. 

A Silver Medal went to Mrs. J. R. McGinley for her seaside 
garden in Manchester and another to Mr. and Mrs. Geoffrey 

1 In 1925 a working arrangement had been made with the Pennsylvania Horti- 
cultural Society and the Horticultural Society of New York whereby all the 
members of each Society received Horticulture. 



20 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

Whitney of Milton for a large and beautiful garden at their 
Summer home in Wood's Hole on Cape Cod, where Mr. Whitney 
made a specialty of yellow roses. Garden Certificates were 
awarded to Charles D. Armstrong for a garden in North Center- 
ville which included a large collection of specimen box plants, 
probably the largest in New England; to Archibald Blanchard 
of Nahant for a garden featuring roses and to Mr. and Mrs. 
Charles A. Proctor of Swampscott for an original and very suc- 
cessful use of annuals. 

A special award of a Silver Medal was made by the Trustees 
to the Cambridge [Massachusetts] Plant Club "in recognition of 
the fact that it is the oldest garden club in America." The first 
meeting of this club was held on January 20, 1889, at the home of 
Mrs. John Hayes, with twenty members present. This award re- 
sulted in a controversy which still continues. The Ladies Garden 
Club of Athens, Ga., has repeatedly laid claim to the honor of 
being the country's oldest garden club with a continuous existence. 
In fact, it is so credited by the Garden Club of America, notwith- 
standing that it did not hold a meeting until 1892. 

Dr. Frederick V. Coville of the Department of Agriculture in 
Washington was awarded the George Robert White Medal of 
Honor. Taming the wild blueberries which had grown for years 
on the pine barrens of New Jersey was the accomplishment 
which had won him fame, for he had helped to create a new and 
highly important industry. He had done equally valuable work in 
the West, however, having developed a method of grazing control 
in the national forests which permitted their economic utilization, 
yielding as high as $42,000,000 a year to the government for 
grazing permits. 

The Jackson Dawson Memorial Medal was voted to William 
Henry Judd, an English-born gardener who had succeeded Jack- 
son Dawson as chief propagator at the Arnold Arboretum after 
acting as Mr. Dawson's assistant. It devolved upon him to 
raise and distribute much of the material obtained by Dr. Wilson 
in Asia. 

J. D. Eisle of Philadelphia received the Thomas Roland Medal. 
He was long connected with the Henry A. Dreer Nurseries at 



PASSING OF A GREAT BENEFACTOR 21 

Riverton, N. J. and was responsible for bringing many new 
plants into cultivation. The new William N. Craig Fund was 
drawn upon for the large Gold Medal of the Society bestowed 
upon Miss Isabella Preston of the Experimental Farm, Ottawa, 
Canada, particularly for her lily breeding work. 

Mrs. Edward Gilchrist Low of Brookline won a special Gold 
Medal award in recognition of her achievement in founding the 
Lowthorpe School of Landscape Architecture for Women at 
Groton, Mass. This school educated a number of well known 
landscape architects and grew to have considerable influence. 

The porch competition inaugurated by Mr. Burrage continued 
to attract attention and the medal award for 193 1 was made to 
Mr. and Mrs. C. W. Goodridge of East Milton. At the December 
meeting of the Trustees the Albert C. Burrage $1,000 Gold Vase 
was awarded to Bobbink & Atkins for what was considered the 
most outstanding exhibit at any of the Society's Shows in 1931, 
a splendid rose garden set up at the great Spring Flower Show. 

Three lectures were given by the Society in the course of the 
year, one by Clarence Elliott, a well known English horticulturist, 
one by R. M. Cooley of Silverton, Oregon, and one by Professor 
A. B. Stout of the New York Botanical Garden. It had not yet 
seemed wise to resume the practice of conducting a regular lec- 
ture course. 

This had been a satisfactory year from the Treasurer's point 
of view in spite of poor business conditions. The Spring Flower 
Show had made a profit of over $21,000 as has been noted, 
the Mt. Auburn Cemetery management had sent a check for 
$1,943.91, Horticulture had turned in a profit of $1,477.51 and 
running expenses had been normal except for certain improve- 
ments. Thus $2,918.86 could be transferred to the earned income 
account. 

Before the end of the year, however, the Trustees voted to 
part with two of its assets — the Herbarium which the former 
Secretary, William P. Rich, had assembled over a series of years, 
and the Herbarium which George E. Davenport had given the 
Society in 1875. The latter Herbarium included 116 species and 
many varieties of North American ferns, with a complete cata- 



22 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

logue. It was given by the Society to the Gray Herbarium, while 
the Rich collection went to the Boston Society of Natural History. 
The Trustees felt that these Herbaria could be displayed to 
better advantage by these institutions than at Horticultural Hall. 



1932— THE SOCIETY WEATHERS A DEPRESSION 

EDWIN S. WEBSTER, who succeeded Mr. Burrage as 
President, paid his predecessor a warm tribute at the an- 
nual meeting the first Monday of May, 1932, and the 
members present stood to honor his memory. The plan of combin- 
ing the annual and inaugural meetings, carried out the previous 
year for the first time, was found very satisfactory, as Mr. 
Webster remarked. In the course of his address the President 
pointed out that the Society had suffered very little from the 
then current depression. There had been a steady increase in 
membership, with a total enrollment of 7,308 men and women 
at the beginning of May, representing many states. To be sure, 
the Society had not escaped the effects of business conditions al- 
together, for there had been a slight drop in the revenue from 
investments, but this loss had been largely overcome by receipts 
from membership dues, which amounted to $12,112.50. Still, the 
President thought it might be wise to charge an initiation fee of 
one dollar. Under the constitution the dues themselves could not 
be more than two dollars a year. 1 Mr. Webster was reelected at 
this meeting, while Walter Hunnewell was elected a Vice Presi- 
dent. 

When making his report as Chairman of the Library Com- 
mittee Mr. Kidder noted that Mr. Burrage had bequeathed his 
horticultural library to the Society, but that it had not been re- 
ceived at that date. 2 

The Chairman stated in his report that the Library had been 
in the habit of paying postage on the books mailed out to mem- 
bers, but that the cost had increased to such an extent that the 

1 Later the constitution was changed, as will be noted, and Mr. Webster's sug- 
gestion was not put into effect. 

'Several packages of books were soon delivered, but Mrs. Burrage desired to 
keep the greater part of the library for the time being in the beautiful room 
built for it in her Manchester home. 



24 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

Library Committee had voted to ask borrowers to pay the trans- 
portation charges both ways. The response had been excellent, 
he said, and the savings considerable. 

Three amendments to the By Laws were adopted at the 1932 
Annual Meeting which in effect were as follows : 

Each member became entitled to at least one free admission 
to every exhibition of the Society under rules to be established 
by the Trustees. 

The Committee on Exhibitions was to consist of at least two 
Trustees and three other members of the Society, who might or 
might not be Trustees. 

The Committee on Prizes was to consist of two Trustees and 
three other members of the Society who might or might not be 
Trustees. 

This was in line with the efforts being made to do what prob- 
ably would be called today streamlining all the Exhibitions. The 
fact was being realized that the Spring Exhibition in particular 
had come to be an enterprise of huge proportions, requiring great 
concentration of skill and energy and the application of thorough- 
going business principles. Those in charge wisely agreed to work 
for an ever increasing degree of "finish," to use a technical term, 
meaning the most careful attention to details in the setting up 
of the exhibits. With the goal of near-perfection always being 
kept in mind, the Boston Show has come to be known as the out- 
standing exhibition of the country in this respect. 

Business conditions were such that the Trustees deemed it wise 
to hold the Spring Exhibition in Horticultural Hall rather than 
risk the heavy expense involved in going to Mechanics Building. 
The crowds which came to the Show assumed such proportions 
that the doors had to be closed on several occasions. The total 
attendance ran to 41,000, with a profit well above $15,000. All 
this was gratifying but the Trustees and the Exhibition Com- 
mittee in particular felt strongly that it was due the public to 
provide more commodious quarters for the Spring Exhibitions. 

Some attempts on the part of persons outside the Society to 
share in the profits of a great Show in the Spring were reported, 
with the possibility of a rival exhibition being attempted. The 



THE SOCIETY WEATHERS A DEPRESSION 25 

Committee expressed itself as firm in the belief that the Show 
should be handled exclusively by the Society and certain in- 
quiries indicated that most of the prominent exhibitors would 
stand by the Society in this matter. Even the advertising was 
kept in Society hands at this show, being handled by the secre- 
tary, with a considerable saving. 

The Spring Exhibition was pronounced one of the most beauti- 
ful ever held in Horticultural Hall with a finish and artistic touch 
seldom achieved. Mrs. Albert C. Burrage was awarded the Albert 
C. Burrage Gold Vase for a remarkable tropical garden with 
orchids. Actually this award was made at the end of the year, 
the award being given annually for the best exhibit at any of the 
year's Shows. The President's Cup was awarded at the Spring 
Show to Will C. Curtis and Ormond Hamilton for a wild garden. 

One advantage which came from holding the Spring Show in 
Horticultural Hall was found in the fact that it introduced many 
persons to the Library and to the Society itself. The Library 
was kept open each evening during the Show and the number 
of visitors was encouragingly large. Furthermore, the number 
of books loaned increased from a total 680 for the month as 
against 442 in 1931, when the Show was held elsewhere. 

The Fall Show was omitted in 1932, largely for financial 
reasons, but the Gardeners' and Florists' Club of Boston felt 
that a substitute Show was needed and asked for the privilege 
of trying its hand at such an Exhibition. Permission was given, 
of course, and an excellent Show, although largely commercial, 
was staged under the management of William N. Craig, a very 
active member of the Society, a one-time Trustee and a great 
horticulturist. 

The 1932 convention of the National Council of State Garden 
Club Federations was held in Boston and many of the visitors 
spent some time at Horticultural Hall. The meetings were held 
at the Copley Plaza, with the Secretary of the Society as one of 
the speakers. 

An important addition to the records of the Society was made 
in 1932, when Mrs. Florence Mayo, an assistant to the Secretary, 
assembled all the available facts about the portraits and other 



26 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

paintings on display in the building and also about the busts, 
most of the latter being in the Trustees' room. This information 
will be found in the appendix of this book. 

The portraits in the upper corridor are, with one exception, 
those of one-time Presidents, which is the reason, of course, that 
this corridor is often referred to as the Presidents' Gallery. As 
stated not all the portraits are those of Presidents. The largest and 
one of the best is that of H. H. Hunnewell, who served as Trustee 
and Treasurer, which hangs in a conspicuous place in the second- 
floor corridor. Mr. Hunnewell was one of the Society's important 
benefactors. Arrangements were made in 1932 for hanging the 
portraits of Thomas Roland and Ernest H. Wilson. The first was 
purchased through the cooperation of friends and the second by 
a contribution from the Horticultural Club of Boston, of which 
organization both men were prominent members. The Horti- 
cultural Club had previously presented the Society the portrait 
of John K. M. L. Farquhar, at one time President of the Society 
as well as a leading member of the club. The new portraits were 
hung in the Secretary's office. 

The unemployment situation as it affected private gardeners 
was brought to the Society's attention in 1932. This situation 
resulted from the necessity experienced by many estate owners 
of reducing expenses. It was agreed by the Trustees to publish 
the advertisements of gardeners out of employment without 
charge and soon they ran to two columns in the magazine Horti- 
culture. The Society also undertook to be of service to certain 
groups of unemployed in the ranks of architects and civil en- 
gineers. Not much was said about this work but it helped meet 
the immediate needs of these men and their families. 

W. Albert Manda of South Orange, N. J. was awarded the 
George Robert White Medal of Honor in 1932, an award which 
was highly commended, for Mr. Manda was one of the best loved 
men in the field of horticulture. He held membership in thirty- 
four horticultural and scientific organizations. Before going to 
New Jersey he was in charge of the Botanic Gardens at Harvard 
University for five years. In his lifetime he won over 2,000 prizes, 
including 400 cups and many medals, all leading up to this 



THE SOCIETY WEATHERS A DEPRESSION 27 

award of the George Robert White Medal. Word came in the 
midst of the Spring Show in Boston a few months later that he 
had been killed by falling from a train between South Orange 
and New York. 

The Jackson Dawson Memorial Medal was bestowed on 
Charles O. Dexter of Sandwich for his work in hybridizing and 
propagating azaleas and other rhododendrons. Although Mr. 
Dexter was strictly an amateur his enthusiasm knew no bounds. 
Most of the time he could spare from his work as a mill executive 
was spent at his Sandwich farm, where he built up a plant collec- 
tion which attracted hundreds of visiting experts. 3 

The Thomas Roland Medal which went to Dr. Walter G. 
Kendall of Atlantic was only one of the dozens which had been 
awarded to him in a long life time, but the most highly prized, 
representing the highest honor bestowed on him. Dr. Kendall, a 
dentist, was another amateur to achieve conspicuous success in 
horticulture. For forty years he gave much of his time to the 
cultivation of grapes on a large scale, although not commercially, 
for all his fruit was given away. Dr. Kendall's vineyard was in 
what is known geologically as a "kettle hole," which was a fea- 
ture of his place, and he experimented with every variety 
suggested for this section. The results were shown at many exhibi- 
tions in Horticultural Hall. 

Members of the Garden Committee, of which Mrs. Bayard 
Thayer was Chairman, made many visits in 1932 and expanded 
the committee's work by introducing Blue Ribbon Certificates, 
which were considered to have somewhat higher value as awards 
than the Society's regular Certificates. 4 

The complete list of garden awards follows : 

A Silver Medal to Mrs. Edwin S. Webster for a beautiful and 
outstanding rose garden on the shores of Buzzards Bay at Quis- 
sett, a garden showing the perfection of culture. 

A Silver Medal to Dudley L. Pickman of Bedford for a Spring 

8 Unfortunately, the men who became owners of the estate after Mr. Dexter's 
death did not maintain it as he had done and the collection was gradually dis- 
persed. 

* These Blue Ribbon Certificates were continued for several years and then 
disappeared from the records. 



28 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

bog garden on the banks of the Sudbury River showing great 
knowledge and skill in the cultivation of native shrubs and 
flowers. 

A special Silver Medal to Mrs. Theodore E. Brown of Milton 
for a superbly grown planting of flowering and fruiting shrubs 
of unusual excellence and in great variety. 

A Blue Ribbon Garden Certificate to Mrs. Holden McGinley 
of Milton for a garden of great charm and restraint planted in an 
unusually interesting manner. 

A Blue Ribbon Garden Certificate to Mrs. George R. Fearing 
of Westwood for a courtyard and rose garden. 

A Blue Ribbon Garden Certificate to the Park Department of 
the City of Boston for the new rose garden in Fenway Park. 

A Garden Certificate to Horace C. Baker of Maiden for a 
unique garden skilfully planted on a ledge and including a sur- 
prisingly large number of rare and unusual plants. 

A Garden Certificate to Miss Cornelia Conway Parker of 
South Lancaster for a small intimate garden spot planted with 
restraint and charm. 

A Garden Certificate to Mrs. George L. Hyde of Swampscott 
for a well cultivated personal garden. 

Another former President and long an active member of the 
Society, Henry Pickering Walcott, passed away November n, 
1932, at the age of 93. He was prominent in many lines of en- 
deavor, as a lengthy tribute by Nathaniel T. Kidder in the Year 
Book for 1933 attests. He was elected a life member of the So- 
ciety in 1876 and served on the Library Committee for ten years. 
Dr. Walcott became President of the Society in 1886. During 
his administration a plan for a building in the Public Gardens 
was favored by the Society, but not by the city fathers, much to 
the doctor's disappointment. 

The Benevolent Fraternity Fruit and Flower Mission, which 
had been under the Society's wing for several years, with head- 
quarters in the basement of Horticultural Hall, had more than 
the usual number of calls to meet in 1932 and expressed its 
gratitude for more than 1 ,400 bushels of produce salvaged by the 
Society for an emergency bureau, upon whose lists were 1,500 
registrants — unemployed architects and engineers. The annual 



THE SOCIETY WEATHERS A DEPRESSION 29 

1 report of the Mission showed that 141 hospitals, institutions and 
individual homes were reached with flowers after the Spring 
Show alone. This was set down as the most successful year in the 
history of the organization, which had been formed sixty-four 
years before in the basement of the Hollis Street Church. 

The year had been reasonably satisfactory from the Treasur- 
er's viewpoint. There had been a profit of $2,527.20, with Horti- 
culture contributing $996.48. The Show profit was $17,245.23, 
as noted. The Show Insurance Fund was standing at $35,000. 



1933— STEADY GROWTH THROUGH TROUBLED 

TIMES 

A LTHOUGH March of 1933 found the great Spring Exhibi- 
I \ tion back in Mechanics Building, it was under anything 
X V. but favorable conditions. There had just been a bank 
holiday and a general feeling of gloom prevailed throughout the 
country. It was not easy to obtain exhibitors and three days of 
the show week were rainy days, adding to the difficulties ex- 
perienced by the Committee on Exhibitions, with Harold S. Ross 
as Chairman. Nevertheless, it proved to be an excellent Show, 
with an attendance of 65,000, and it made a profit of $10,000, 
which was considered remarkable under the circumstances. 

One of the exhibits at this Show was among the most outstand- 
ing ever seen in Mechanics Building and one which has never 
been surpassed. It was a large and beautifully planted rock 
garden set up by Ralph Hancock for English Gardens, Inc., and 
its importance may be judged by the fact that it received the 
President's Cup and the Gold Medal of the Horticultural Society 
of New York, and then, at the end of the year, the Albert C. 
Burr age Gold Vase as the most outstanding exhibit at any of 
the Society's shows in 1933. Mr. Hancock was an expert and 
had been a winner at several New York shows. 

Two major experiments in the matter of exhibitions were made 
in 1933. One was the holding of a Show devoted exclusively to 
fruits and vegetables. The other was the presentation of an 
Autumn Show with an admission fee. Both exhibitions were ex- 
cellent, but the Autumn Show suffered a small financial loss. The 
Exhibition Committee felt that such a Show could be made to 
pay in future years, but in this they were mistaken, as will later 
appear. 

The exhibitions of fruits had been very popular in years gone 
by and William C. Endicott, a former President, helped to revive 



STEADY GROWTH THROUGH TROUBLED TIMES 31 

this interest with a special prize, to be known as the Governor 
Endecott prize, for pears. This was inspired, no doubt by the fact 
that a pear tree planted by Governor Endecott was still standing 
on Mr. Endicott's place in Danvers. 1 

On October 1, 1933, Arno H. Nehrling came to the Society 
as Exhibition manager. He was well and favorably known, hav- 
ing been at one time an instructor at the Massachusetts State 
College and later on the staff at Cornell University, eventually 
leaving the teaching profession to go into business. He had been 
with the E. G. Hill Company of Richmond, Ind., for several years. 
When at Cornell he gained experience in flower show work by 
setting up the exhibits at the State Fair in Syracuse, N. Y. At one 
time while in Massachusetts Mr. Nehrling came down from 
Amherst to give a lecture at Horticultural Hall and found his 
name in large letters on a banner hung across the street from 
this Hall to Symphony Hall. Little did he dream then that one 
day he would head the staff at Horticultural Hall. 

James Geehan, who had been acting as Show Manager, had 
been appointed advertising manager of Horticulture and its sup- 
plement, Garden Club News. An office for his use was provided 
at the rear of the building, where considerable idle space existed. 

The annual meeting held the first Monday in May found the 
Society with a membership of 7,271, it having continued to grow 
in spite of adverse conditions. The President remarked that it 
was the only Society with which he was familiar that was adding 
to its list of members at that time. Mr. Webster was pleased that 
most of the essential repairs were being paid for out of current 
income. However, it is only fair to say that the reasonably good 
financial situation which prevailed had not been achieved without 
considerable economy as well as some sacrifice on the part of the 
employes, who had agreed to accept a ten per cent reduction in 
wages and salaries. 

The repairs which the President had in mind when making 
his address included the pointing of the bricks at the rear of the 
building and the installation of copper gutters where leaks had 
begun to appear. 

When the Secretary made his report at the annual meeting he 

x The change in spelling has come about in the course of years. 



32 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

added a little to the President's remarks, pointing out that the 
increase in membership had been confined wholly to annual mem- 
bers. The chart in the Secretary's office was showing a constant 
drop in life memberships, as has been noted in previous years. It 
is true that the life membership fee had been raised from thirty 
to fifty dollars, but that figure seemed low enough when consider- 
ing what a life member might expect to receive over a term of 
years. 

The election of officers at the annual meeting found Mr. 
Webster again chosen President with Oakes Ames re-elected as 
Vice President. Jere A. Downs was added to the Board of 
Trustees. 

Ways of saving money came up for discussion at the meetings 
of the Trustees, as a matter of course, and a decision was reached 
to eliminate the use of the large Gold Medal at the exhibitions 
of the Society, with only the Exhibition Medal being awarded. 
(The two are alike except in size and weight.) Another important 
vote provided that a Medal Certificate instead of the Medal itself 
be given to an exhibitor if he had previously received one 
actual Medal. This was in line with the custom of the Royal 
Horticultural Society. 

The Trustees voted that members of the Exhibition Committee 
should be paid five dollars for each meeting attended, with the 
provision that not more than one thousand dollars in fees should 
be paid out in any year. 

Many gifts of horticultural books, some of them very valuable, 
reach the Library every year. In 1933 these gifts included books 
from the Library of Ernest W. Bowditch, given by his daughter, 
Mrs. Augustus H. Eustis, in his memory. They included several 
scarce editions which the Librarian had long wished to have on 
the shelves. There came also a collection of pomological books 
from the Libraries of the two Robert Mannings, one a founder 
and the other long the Society's Secretary-Treasurer. Richard C. 
Manning made this gift. People seemed to be reading more in 
spite of or perhaps because of the depression, calls for books 
coming from Maine to Florida and west to Oregon, with a total 
of 1,407 mailings. The postage was $84.24. Refunds amounted 
to $84.21, making the cost of this service in the matter of postage 



STEADY GROWTH THROUGH TROUBLED TIMES 33 

just three cents. The saving in postage has continued to increase 
as the circulation of books from the Library has grown. 

Like all publications Horticulture had rough sledding in 1933, 
although encouragement was found in the fact that the circula- 
tion remained almost stationary, whereas many magazines suf- 
fered a loss of one-third of their subscribers. The circulation at 
the end of 1933 was 22,240. Advertising revenue fell off to a 
marked degree and yet the year ended with a profit. The experi- 
ment of publishing a supplement to be called Garden Club News 
was started in the hope of giving added support to the Garden 
Club Federation. The initial response was not as satisfactory as 
had been expected, although considerable advertising was re- 
ceived. A similar experiment was tried in Pennsylvania but did 
not prove successful. Garden Club News was carried on for some 
time and although it was helpful to the garden clubs, in the end 
the expense outweighed the paper's usefulness and the experiment 
was set down as a failure. 

Two new bulletins were published, " Garden Club Programs'' 
and "Herbs, How to Grow Them and How to Use Them." The 
latter bulletin, written by Mrs. Helen Noyes Webster, was 
particularly successful and led Mrs. Webster to prepare a good 
sized book on herbs. 

The Committee on Special Medals, with Oakes Ames as Chair- 
man, chose J. Horace McFarland of Harrisburg, Pa., to receive 
the George Robert White Medal of Honor for 1933. Mr. Mc- 
Farland, long President of the American Civic Association, one- 
time President of the American Rose Society and Editor of the 
Rose Annual, was widely known as a writer and lecturer who had 
a restless and insatiable interest in new plants wherever grown 
and a resistless desire to bring more of beauty and charm into 
American cities and homes. He had a large garden at "Breeze 
Hill" in Harrisburg, where countless plants, newly discovered or 
hybridized, were grown so that judgment might be passed upon 
them. He was one of the moving spirits in the publication of 
"Standardized Plant Names" and was a member of the Council 
of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society. He has been credited 
with the suggestion which resulted in the formation of the present 
national park system. 



34 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

The Committee named Lambertus C. Bobbink of Rutherford, 
N. J. to receive the Thomas Roland Medal. As the head of one 
of the country's largest plant-producing firms he was always 
eager to develop and offer new and better material. 

E. G. Hill of Richmond, Ind. was selected for the Jackson 
Dawson Memorial Medal. Mr. Hill was a veteran rose grower 
responsible for the introduction of many of the best roses going 
into commerce, with particular emphasis on those intended for 
greenhouse culture. It was a matter of great regret that Mr. Hill 
passed away before the Medal could reach him. 

Dr. and Mrs. Homer Gage were recommended for a Gold 
Medal from the H. H. Hunnewell Fund for their estate in Shrews- 
bury. This estate, known as "Iristhorpe," featured irises in gen- 
eral, but Japanese irises in particular. 

Mr. and Mrs. Edwin S. Webster had already been awarded 
a Silver Medal for their beautiful rose garden at Quissett, but 
the 1933 committee decided that the garden deserved greater 
recognition and gave it the Society's large Gold Medal. The year's 
additional awards as recommended by the committee were as 
follows : 

Mrs. Stephen Weld, a Gold Medal for a fine old garden at Ware- 
ham. 

Miss Grace Edwards, a Silver Medal for a charming garden at 
Beverly Farms. 

Mr. Charles O. Blood, a Silver Medal for a large garden at 
Lynnfield Center. 

Mrs. Dana Osgood, a Blue Ribbon Certificate, for a unique tree- 
enclosed garden with many wild flowers at Hopedale. 

Mrs. Edith Morgan, a Blue Ribbon Certificate for an intimate 
garden at Stockbridge. 

Mrs. Charles F. Wallace, a Blue Ribbon Certificate, for a de- 
lightful small garden at Chestnut Hill. 

Mrs. Osborne Howes, a Blue Ribbon Certificate for a lovely 
garden built around a swimming pool at Chestnut Hill. 

Mrs. Ralph Hornblower, a Blue Ribbon Certificate for a lawn 
of unusual excellence at Plymouth. 



STEADY GROWTH THROUGH TROUBLED TIMES 35 

Corliss Brothers, a Certificate for an artistic wayside stand at 
West Gloucester. 

Hugh Bancroft, a Trustee, passed away in 1933. As a pub- 
lisher he was especially valuable to the Society on the committee 
guiding the destinies of Horticulture. The President, with the 
approval of the Board of Trustees, appointed William Ellery of 
Chestnut Hill to fill out Mr. Bancroft's unexpired term. At the 
1934 annual meeting Mr. Ellery was elected for three years. 
William Dexter was appointed to succeed Albert C. Burrage, Jr., 
whose term had expired. 

Unfortunately the financial situation was not as favorable at 
the end of the year as had been hoped. Indeed, the Society 
found itself in the red for the first time in several years. The 
deficit was not large, however ($2,819.72), and the small check 
of only $700 from Mt. Auburn Cemetery helped explain it in 
part. Horticulture was in the happy position of being able to 
show a profit of $1,488.89, and the sum of $12,555 na cl been 
received from membership fees, an increase of $400 over the 
previous year. 



1934— A NEW EXHIBITION MANAGER 
PROVES HIMSELF 

THE Committee on Exhibitions, with Harold S. Ross as 
Chairman, was beset with difficulties when preparing for 
the Spring Show at Mechanics Building in 1934. With 
conditions as they were, most private growers were in no mood 
to incur the expense required to set up worth-while exhibits. In 
particular, no amateur was willing to supply the material needed 
for a feature exhibit on the stage. As a result the original schedule 
had to be revised and reissued. Then the commercial exhibitors, 
together with the garden clubs, extended helping hands and a 
highly satisfactory Exhibition, sufficient to fill the halls, was 
presented. The stage exhibit, which was set up by Sherman Eddy, 
under the name of Tow Path Gardens, Inc., showed an old New 
England farm house in a suitable setting with trees and flowers, 
and won the Gold Medal of the Horticultural Society of New 
York. Mr. Eddy, with headquarters in Hartford, Conn., could 
always be depended on for original and attractive exhibits. 

In reviewing this show Mr. Ross mentioned an effort by the 
Society through the Committee on Exhibitions to maintain a 
proper balance between the private and commercial interests, 
both being needed to make the Shows complete. The Show 
yielded $21,364.31, which amount was transferred to general 
income. 

The annual meeting of the Society, held on May 7, was pre- 
ceded by a lecture in which the Secretary reviewed the activities 
of the previous year, illustrating his talk with lantern slides. Mr. 
Webster opened the meeting by calling attention to the improve- 
ment which had been made in the acoustics of the Lecture Hall. 
For many years it had been difficult to hold meetings in the hall 
with any degree of satisfaction because of pronounced echoes and 
outside noises. When the building was erected doubtless the archi- 



A NEW SHOW MANAGER PROVES HIMSELF 37 

tects did not consider the possibilities of disturbance from street 
cars and other vehicles. In those days, too, not much was known 
about sound proofing methods. The situation had been remedied, 
Mr. Webster said, by covering the ceiling with a substance which 
catches and holds sound waves to a marked degree. Double sash 
had been put on the windows and a forced ventilating system did 
away with the necessity of opening the windows except in ex- 
tremely hot weather. 

When speaking of the surprising growth of the Society through- 
out the depression years Mr. Webster stated that the total 
membership of 7,610 included 821 persons in other states and 
nineteen in foreign countries. Twenty-one members resided in 
California and eighteen in Florida. 

All this was pleasant to hear, but when the President came to 
the matter of finances the story was, unfortunately, somewhat 
different, because he had to report the loss which existed at the 
end of 1933. He expressed the belief that with the good showing 
made by the Spring Exhibition and by the practice of rigid 
economy the Society would not be using red ink at the end of 
1934. He was doomed to disappointment, however, for again 
there was to be a deficit when the year closed, although it 
amounted only to $641.60. 

A new Medal to be known as the H. H. Hunnewell Medal was 
introduced in 1934. It was made from a design by John Paramino 
and carried the likeness of Mr. Hunnewell on the face, with the 
words "Horatio Hollis Hunnewell" around it. The reverse carried 
an inscription stating that the Medal was awarded for "an estate 
showing rare skill and beauty." The expense of this medal was 
borne by the H. H. Hunnewell Fund, which had previously 
financed the Society's regular Medal. It was stipulated when the 
fund was created that the awards to be made from it must be for 
estates of at least three acres, a fact that has appeared to create 
difficulties in the use of the fund in some years. The first Medal 
struck went to the Hunnewell family. 

The garden committee for 1934 was notable for its dis- 
tinguished personnel. The members were Mrs. Bayard Thayer, 
chairman, Mrs. Albert C. Burrage, Jr., Joseph E. Chandler, Mrs. 
S. V. R. Crosby, Mrs. F. B. Crowninshield, William C. Endicott 



38 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

and Mrs. Homer Gage. The new H. H. Hunnewell Gold Medal 
was awarded to Grenville Linda Winthrop for his estate in 
Lenox, which was remarkable for the great number of magnifi- 
cent trees it contained, its broad, perfectly kept lawns, its shrub 
plantings and a large rock garden planted exclusively with woody 
material. The estate was unusual in the fact that it had no flower 
gardens or borders. 

A Gold Medal went to Mrs. Galen L. Stone for her estate in 
Marion, which bordered the ocean and had large greenhouses 
surrounded by flower gardens given over mostly to annuals. 
The estate had many fine trees and remarkably well-kept hedges. 1 

A Gold Medal was awarded to Jere A. Downs for his rose 
garden in Winchester. This garden, designed by John B. Wills, 
was one of the outstanding rose gardens in the state as regards 
size, arrangement and the quality of the plants grown in it. 2 

A Gold Medal was awarded Mrs. Francis Boardman Crowin- 
shield for her rose garden in Marblehead. This garden, which has 
been established for many years, has several unique features and 
is looked down upon by several fine old statues. It is still main- 
tained as this is written. 

Other awards for the year were as follows: 

A Silver Medal to Mrs. Pierpont L. Stackpole for her garden 
in Manchester. 

A Blue Ribbon Certificate to Mr. and Mrs. George B. Baker 
for a charming little garden at Chestnut Hill. 

A Blue Ribbon Certificate to Mrs. Gaspar G. Bacon for a 
garden in Jamaica Plain. 

A Blue Ribbon Certificate to Dr. and Mrs. Amos I. Hadley for 
a garden in Wayland surrounded by a serpentine wall. 

A Blue Ribbon Certificate to Mrs. Stephen Van Renssaeler 
Crosby for a remarkable hornbeam hedge on her estate in Man- 
chester. 

A Blue Ribbon Certificate to Mrs. Charles Sumner Bird, Jr., 

*As this is written the estate is in the hands of Robert Stone, his mother 
having passed away. It is from the Stone greenhouses that the magnificent 
acacias seen at the Spring Flower Shows in Boston have come. Nowhere else in 
New England is there a large collection of these plants. 

'Since the death of Mr. Downs, who was a Trustee of the Society, the estate 
which included the rose garden has been broken up. 



A NEW SHOW MANAGER PROVES HIMSELF 39 

for her driveway in Ipswich lined with magnificent trees planted 
by Mrs. Bird's father, Randolph Morgan Appleton. 

The George Robert White Medal of Honor was awarded to 
Captain F. Kingdon Ward, noted British plant hunter and ex- 
plorer. Captain Ward had penetrated to the most distant points 
of China and had worked in other countries, finding many 
hundred new plants for European and American gardens. His 
discoveries of rhododendrons and primulas were especially note- 
worthy. He was the author of several important books and had 
already received high honors in his native country. 

The Thomas Roland Medal, given for skill in horticulture, 
went to William Kleinheinz of Elkins Park, Pa., Superintendent 
for Joseph Widener. He was an expert gardener and the exhibits 
of acacias from the Widener greenhouses set up by him were 
among the principal features of the Spring Flower Show in 
Philadelphia for many years. 

H. Harold Hume of Gainesville, Fla. received the Jackson 
Dawson Memorial Medal, and was later to win other important 
awards because of the important work done by him in the hy- 
bridization and propagation of azaleas, camellias, hollies and 
citrus fruits and for his writings. 

Horticulture made a steady gain in circulation in 1934 in spite 
of depressed business conditions, reaching a total of 25,000. A 
material factor was a 300 membership increase by the Pennsyl- 
vania society, which, of course, added that many to the total. 
The advertising situation had improved somewhat, with receipts 
of $19,075 as against $17,000 the previous year. However, this 
amount was only half that of 1939, when business was better. 3 

The Library acquired two rare and important books in 1934. 
One was Andrew Mollet's "Garden of Pleasure," published in 
London in 1670. This purchase gave the Library what probably 
is the only copy of this work in the country. The second rare 
book was a copy of the 1599 edition of Gerard's list of the plants 

8 It is to be noted that the profit account of the magazine suffers from the fact 
that all copies delivered to members of the Society or to subscribers within the 
Boston postal district must carry stamps instead of being sent by a pound rate, 
as is permitted outside this district. This means that it costs more to send Horti- 
culture to Jamaica Plain or Chestnut Hill than it does to Kalamazoo or Los 
Angeles. It is one of the peculiar features of the postal regulations. 



4 o TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

grown in his garden at Holborn. From it we get an insight into 
the resources of the best gardens of the 17th century. The prac- 
tice of setting out the Society's choice books under the protection 
of glass for the benefit of visitors begun at this time met with 
warm approval. 

This is in effect a dual Library. It has assembled and con- 
tinually adds to a collection of very old, rare and highly valuable 
publications, making possible an understanding of horticultural 
progress as seen through its literature over a period of centuries. 
At the same time it acquires every new book having horticultural 
significance either through purchase or from Horticulture, which 
passes on to the Library all the garden books received for review. 

An examination of the records in the Secretary's office in 1934 
revealed that no fewer than twenty-four persons had been mem- 
bers for at least forty years. The names were published in the 
Year Book, starting with that of Walter S. Barnes, who had 
become a member in 1866. 

The members of the Prize Committee were voted a five-dollar 
fee for each meeting attended, following similar action the pre- 
vious year at the request of the Committee on Exhibitions, but 
with a total limit of $1,000 in a year. 

Both Boston and the Massachusetts Horticultural Society may 
claim the credit for introducing the school garden movement into 
America, according to a contribution to the Year Book in 1934 by 
Thomas Patrick Dooley, head of the Department of Agriculture 
at the Jamaica Plain High School. It seems that Henry Lincoln 
Clapp, then master of the George Putnam School in Roxbury, 
went to Europe in 1890 or '91 to study school gardening, already 
established there. When he returned he planted a wild garden 
in the yard of his school, and later added vegetables. Next he 
succeeded in getting appropriations for the recognition for these 
forms of horticulture from the Society and became Chairman of 
the Children's Garden Committee. Enthusiasm for such work be- 
gan to manifest itself in different parts of the state and the 
movement soon spread throughout the country. Mr. Dooley's 
paper covered five pages and was deemed of much importance 
in correlating all the existing information about the rise and 
development of school garden activities in America. 



A NEW SHOW MANAGER PROVES HIMSELF 41 

Miss Marian Roby Case, a Trustee very much interested in 
the work of children, donated thirty bronze medals for awards in 
1934 and continued such donations as long as she lived. She also 
conducted a garden school for boys each Summer at her home 
in Weston. 

In 1934 and for several years thereafter Charles Young, with 
a fruit farm near Fall River, amazed visitors to the fruit and 
vegetable shows held late each Summer, by the high quality of 
the apples and pears which he brought in. At the same time he 
astonished other growers by the unorthodox methods he followed. 
He did not plow his orchard, as did most growers, but mulched 
his trees with brush and trimmings and pruned only lightly. His 
methods were often ridiculed at the time but some of them 
gradually came into common use. 

It is interesting to find the Albert C. Burrage Gold Vase 
awarded at the Autumn Exhibition rather than at the more 
extensive Spring Show. This much coveted award went to the 
Isabella Steward Gardner Museum for a large, modernistic chrys- 
anthemum exhibit, which involved a great amount of work and 
was much admired. The attendance at the Show was disappoint- 
ing, however, probably because it came close to Election Day, 
when newspaper publicity was difficult to obtain. Fifty cents ad- 
mission was charged non-members, but the receipts were not 
sufficient to prevent a small loss. 

Thus it fell to the lot of Mr. Nehrling, the new Exhibition 
Manager, to supervise two large and important Shows in one of 
the most difficult years in the Society's history. It was a new 
experience, but he acquitted himself so handsomely that there 
was no question about his ability to deal with whatever prob- 
lems might be encountered in the future. 



1935— RIGID ECONOMY WELL REWARDED 

WITH a deficit for two years behind them, the Trustees 
approached 1935 in a mood calling for rigid economy. 
The heads of committees and departments were called 
together and instructed to reduce expenditures where this could 
be done without interfering with the necessary work of the 
Society. It was decided to put on a small free Show in the Au- 
tumn instead of duplicating the expensive Show of the previous 
year. The early June Show was dropped and the prize awards of 
the other Shows kept at a minimum. 

However, as the season progressed prospects began to look 
brighter all along the line. The Spring Show was a decided suc- 
cess and the number of members continued to increase, reaching 
a total of 8,217 at the date of the annual meeting. The month of 
April alone brought in $2,644 in membership fees, the largest 
amount at that time for a single month in the Society's history. 

Indeed, many large figures began to show on the books, for 
the Society was necessarily becoming involved in business opera- 
tions to a considerable extent, although its aims and purposes 
continued, of course, to be educational and philanthropical. In 
April the Treasurer paid out $52,000, but that was the month in 
which most of the Spring Show bills were paid, including $24,000 
in prizes. 

It was a matter of satisfaction to all concerned that the Board 
of Trustees felt sufficiently encouraged to restore the salary and 
wage cuts which had been in effect for some time. 

Because of a new appraisement of the building and its contents 
and a consequent reduction in rates, the amount of insurance 
premiums due each year had been reduced by several hundred 
dollars. These insurance premiums, by the way, are an important 
item of expense, amounting to about $3,000 a year. The loss in 
rentals had not been made up. This loss, occasioned by the 



RIGID ECONOMY WELL REWARDED 43 

merging of the food show with a more general exhibition in 
Mechanics Building, was a substantial one. The food show had 
been a fixture at Horticultural Hall for many years, but it was 
feeling the effects of the depression. 

The great event of the Spring was, of course, the mammoth 
Exhibition in Mechanics Building, which earned the Society 
$21,364.31. Harold S. Ross, who was Chairman of the Exhibition 
Committee, declared it to be the most beautiful Spring Flower 
Show so far staged in Boston. It was larger than previous shows, 
the basement being used, and the exhibits in Grand Hall were 
staged under the direction of the garden clubs, making this huge 
auditorium a unit exhibit of "June in New England," This Show 
was the first to be planned by a landscape architect, Harold Hill 
Blossom, a member of the Board of Trustees and a man standing 
high in his profession. Mr. Ross felt that this policy should be 
followed in the future, as, indeed, it has been, at least in some 
degree. 

A feature of this Show was a conservation garden staged by 
the New England Wild Flower Preservation Society and the 
Massachusetts Audubon Society. It received the Silver Medal of 
the Garden Club of America. The President's Cup was won by 
Mr. and Mrs. John S. Ames for a large and handsome Japanese 
garden. This was in addition to the Society's Gold Medal. Will 
C. Curtis won the Gold Medal of the Horticultural Society of 
New York for a remarkable naturalistic garden. Jere Downs was 
awarded the Gold Medal of the Pennsylvania Horticultural So- 
ciety for a huge plant of Cymbidium Beatrice, which attracted 
much attention. The stage exhibit was a handsome azalea garden 
set up by Mrs. Theodore E. Brown and awarded a Gold Medal. 

Only one June Show was held, as voted by the Trustees, but 
that one was staged in co-operation with the American Peony 
Society and brought out 7,229 visitors. The experiment of offer- 
ing ribbons instead of cash prizes was tried at the Gladiolus and 
Dahlia Shows, but apparently it did not meet with favor, for 
we find cash prizes in the schedule the following year. A Vegetable 
and Fruit Show put on in October attracted 8,791 visitors. 

A change in policy in the course of the year resulted in an 
admission charge once more at the Autumn Show, although it 



44 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

was only twenty-five cents. As a matter of fact, this was carry- 
ing out an experiment which caused much discussion and a cer- 
tain amount of criticism. It involved sending tickets to all the 
members of the Society with a request that they sell as many as 
they could. As a result the attendance was 11,239 and the Show 
earned $684.32. 1 

In the course of the year the Rule Book was completely re- 
vised. The use of the Rule Book has simplified and improved the 
judging at all the Shows and is considered so valuable that it has 
been adopted in part at least by other organizations. 

President Webster was traveling in the West at the time of the 
1935 annual meeting, and the senior Vice President, Professor 
Oakes Ames, was in the chair. The business session was preceded 
by a lecture given by the Secretary, in which he used lantern 
slides to review the activities of the previous year. The Secretary 
then read a letter from the President, and the various committees 
gave their reports, the gist of which will be covered in this 1935 
review. 

It was suggested by the Gardeners' and Florists' Club of 
Boston in 1935 that a series of monthly meetings be held with the 
cooperation of that organization. This large and very active 
club had been holding meetings in Horticultural Hall for many 
years and its suggestion was accepted at once. Lectures were 
given at these meetings and limited numbers of plants and 
flowers shown. Mr. Nehrling directed two study courses held in 
Horticultural Hall by the Boston Branch of the National Asso- 
ciation of Gardeners. Mr. and Mrs. Hollis Webster conducted 
courses in botany for amateurs, which were largely attended. 
They were under the auspices of the Society. This became the 
most active study period that had been known for many years. 
It has not continued at this level, and yet class work has not by 
any means been ignored. The Society has attempted, it appears, 
to meet the needs of the times as they have arisen. 

The Society continued to cooperate in the work of establish- 
ing gardens in the Ward 8 section of the city, and the Secretary 
was authorized to spend twenty-five dollars for loam to be used 

1 This was the first and only time that an Autumn Show has had a favorable 
balance, but in spite of that fact the 1935 experiment has not been repeated. 



RIGID ECONOMY WELL REWARDED 45 

in these gardens. Mrs. Robert Stone gave seventy-five dollars to 
be used for prizes. 

At a meeting of the Trustees it was voted to write to the 
Secretary of Agriculture supporting his position in proposing to 
do away with the quarantine on narcissi, a matter which had 
become very controversial. At the same time it was voted to 
award Medals to three men who had been active in educational 
work along horticultural lines: John C. Brodhead, assistant 
superintendent of Boston's schools; Charles M. Lamprey, direc- 
tor of the Martin school in Roxbury, and Richard J. Hayden, 
superintendent of the Boston Park System. 

It was voted also to make the Hall again available for rum- 
mage sales. However, it seemed for a time as if the contents of 
attics and storerooms had been depleted, for no rentals of this 
kind were made throughout the year. This situation was not to 
continue, of course, and Horticultural Hall became once more the 
city's favorite location for rummage sales. 

Some 490 volumes were added to the Library in 1935. The 
botany course led the Library Committee to strengthen that 
part of the book collection and to purchase a set of large-scale 
drawings and diagrams illustrating cultivated genera. 

Dr. Ivan H. Crowell of Boston lectured on "The Diseases of 
Trees," in September, Professor Ralph W. Curtis of Cornell Uni- 
versity lectured on "Trees for Decorative Purposes," in October 
and W. E. Marshall of New York City lectured on "Lilies," in 
November, this lecture being paid for from the William N. Craig 
Fund. One of the outstanding features of the Society's work was 
a course in gardening practice given by Mrs. Julia A. Latimer 
of Mamaroneck, N. Y., eight lectures in all. This course was 
largely attended and proved extremely popular. 

An interesting experiment was made in March when the Hall 
was opened to the Dahlia Society of New England for a lecture 
on a Sunday afternoon. The experiment was a success, for the 
attendance was large, two-thirds of those present being men. 

Professor Oakes Ames was awarded the George Robert White 
Medal of Honor in 1935, an award which was highly commended 
by all familiar with his work. He had been devoted to orchids 
through much of his life and at one time owned a large and im- 



46 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

portant collection at his home in North Easton. When he de- 
cided to give his time to botany, he presented this collection to 
the New York Botanic Garden. He then built up one of the 
largest and strongest orchid herbaria in the world, comprising 
over 42,000 sheets. He also amassed a large scientific library. 
He was professor of botany at Harvard University and for many 
years was supervisor of the Arnold Arboretum, the Harvard 
Botanical Garden in Cuba and the Botanical Museum in Cam- 
bridge. 

William N. Craig received the Thomas Roland Medal for skill 
in horticulture. This skill was a matter of wide knowledge, for 
Mr. Craig had long been recognized as among the most expert 
gardeners in the country. He had established his own nursery 
after many years as an estate superintendent and had written 
a popular book on the cultivation of lilies, a subject in which he 
was especially interested. Some years before, it will be remem- 
bered, he had established a fund with the Massachusetts Horti- 
cultural Society for arousing increased interest in lilies. The 
award from this fund in 1935 was a Medal which went to Arthur 
Grove of London, England. 

The Jackson Dawson Memorial Medal went to M. H. Horvath 
of Mentor, Ohio, a modest man whose work was not widely 
known, but who had been very successful in breeding roses, bar- 
berries and other woody plants. 

There seemed to be renewed interest in gardening in 1935. At 
least that was the report of the Committee on Gardens, which 
received so many letters offering gardens for inspection that a 
zoning plan was decided on, specified sections of the state to be 
visited each year. At the same time the Committee found itself 
somewhat handicapped, as an unseasonable frost in late March 
had done much damage to Spring gardens. The year's awards 
when announced were as follows: 

The Hunnewell Gold Medal to Russell Tyson of North Andover 
for an unusual estate. 

A Gold Medal to Mrs. G. M. Lane for a sea-side garden in Man- 
chester with attractive pools. 

A Silver Medal to Mrs. John G. Coolidge for a rose garden and 
willow trees on her place at North Andover. 



RIGID ECONOMY WELL REWARDED 47 

A Silver Medal to Mrs. Charles F. Ayer of Hamilton for the 
attractive surroundings of a swimming pool. 

The Committee in its travels found several other gardens 
which it felt worthy of recognition. A very pretty small garden 
belonging to Mrs. Charles Norton of Annisquam received a Blue 
Ribbon Certificate. 

A lovely small garden belonging to Mr. and Mrs. W. Endicott 
Dexter of Prides Crossing won a Blue Ribbon Certificate and 
a similar award went to Mrs. Ferris Greenslet for a garden in 
Ipswich which showed unusual originality and much promise for 
the future. Miss Margaret Cummings of Topsfield was awarded 
a Blue Ribbon Certificate for the variety of her gardens and their 
individual charm. Mrs. Charles Pease received a Garden Cer- 
tificate for a garden in Melrose which showed great ingenuity in 
the planting of limited space. 

The 1935 Year Book contained an important article by Miss 
Dorothy Manks, the Librarian, about the Society's collection of 
trade catalogues, something with which few members were fa- 
miliar. The Society has made a systematic collection of such 
catalogues since 1880. When Miss Manks gave this report the 
catalogues file numbered 19,431, representing 2,327 firms. The 
file has a triple appeal — to collectors, to students and to buyers. 
It has proved its value many times through its use by authors 
and research workers. It provides original descriptions and dates 
of introduction. Duplicates from this collection formed the nu- 
cleus of the one in Washington. 

Late in the year Paul Frese, assistant to the Secretary, resigned 
to accept a more lucrative position and later became editor of 
the Flower Grower. Mr. Frese had come into the Secretary's 
office some years before as a graduate of Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural College looking for a position with a florist. After some 
discussion he was offered a position with the Society and de- 
veloped into an excellent writer and editor. He was succeeded 
by Miss Hazel Keener, formerly at the Ohio State University. 

A rearrangement of the offices was then made so that Mr. 
Nehrling might have a room to himself. The exhibition work of 
the Society had expanded to such an extent that more space was 
needed for that department and Mr. Nehrling was able to carry 



48 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

on the interviews in which he had constantly to be engaged under 
quieter conditions. 

There was an exceptionally long necrology list in 1935. It ran 
to 128 names and included two Trustees, Jere A. Downs and 
Harold Hill Blossom, both active and valuable members. Mr. 
Downs was a consistent exhibitor and his marvelous plant of 
Cymbidium Beatrice shown at the Spring Exhibition had won 
him the Albert C. Burrage Gold Vase as the outstanding exhibit 
of the year. As Mr. Downs had passed away after the award had 
been voted, the vase was presented to his sister Miss Elizabeth 
S. Downs. 

Mr. Blossom was active in arranging the Spring Exhibition, as 
has been noted. The Committee on Exhibitions felt itself fortu- 
nate in obtaining the services of his associate Veasey Peirce to 
carry on in his stead. 

At the end of the year the Trustees voted to award a Gold 
Medal to Clifford Brown of Wellesley as the Albert C. Burrage 
Porch Prize for 1935. 

The year closed with an excess of income over expenditures, as 
the Treasurer liked to put it, of $8,540.72. Horticulture con- 
tributed $558.63 to this total, the Spring Show paid well and the 
return from investments was $21,991. There was an increase of 
about $1,500 in membership fees and the rentals were better by 
$1,800. The year 1935 had been a good one. 



1936— BLACK INK UNEXPECTEDLY TURNS RED 

THERE was a feeling of high optimism throughout Horti- 
cultural Hall at the beginning of 1936. The previous year 
had closed with a balance of $8,540.72. The Autumn Show 
had made an unprecedented profit of $684.52. The membership 
had continued to grow and considerable interest in rentals was 
being shown. In this spirit the Trustees added $3,000 to the 
Show Insurance Fund, set aside $1,000 to establish a fund for 
recataloguing the Library, authorized the Secretary to purchase 
a new piano and instructed the Committee on Buildings, with 
Joseph E. Chandler as Chairman, to proceed with the renovation 
of Exhibition Hall as well as to make certain other improvements. 
Then, in March, the floods came, just before the date of the 
Spring Show. They were, perhaps, the most disastrous floods ever 
experienced in New England and they changed the whole out- 
look of the Exhibition Committee almost over night. For a time, 
indeed, there seemed to be little likelihood that a Show would be 
held, but the Show Manager, Mr. Nehrling, and his assistants 
worked night and day for a week, while the exhibitors overcame 
enormous difficulties in getting their material to Mechanics Build- 
ing. Thus the Show was set up and an extra day, Sunday, March 
29, added for the benefit of flood victims. It happened to be the 
first warm Sunday of the season, however, and the attendance 
was disappointing. Still, it was possible to make a worth-while 
gift to the Red Cross — half of the day's receipts. 

The Show was a good one but reaching the Hall was not easy 
for people outside the city and the profit was only $10,300.59. 
Albert A. Hulley won the President's Cup, along with a Gold 
Medal for a rose garden. Will C. Curtis set up a woodland scene 
in his inimitable manner, receiving both the Gold Medal of the 
Horticultural Society of New York and that of the Massachusetts 
Society. A group of cymbidiums won the Pennsylvania Horti- 



50 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

cultural Society's Gold Medal and that of this Society for Miss 
Elizabeth A. Downs. 

At the end of the year Mrs. Frederick F. Brewster was to be 
awarded the Albert C. Burrage Gold Vase for the most outstand- 
ing exhibit at any of the Society's Shows in the course of the 
twelve months. Her exhibit, a beautiful tulip garden, was staged 
at the Spring Show under particularly difficult conditions, for all 
the material used had to be brought from Dublin, N. H., over 
roads and streams subject to the hazards of the March flood. 

At the annual meeting in May the President, Mr. Webster, 
referred to the difficulties occasioned by the floods but was in no 
way disturbed by the loss in revenue. Times of prosperity and 
the lack of it had been recurrent throughout the Society's history 
of over a century, he said. Mr. Webster then went on to deprecate 
a widespread opinion that the Society was very wealthy and not 
in need of additional income. It was true, he said, that the Society 
could make money for a time if it made no effort to carry out the 
fundamental purposes for which it was organized. But then its 
membership would dwindle and its influence decay. Mr. Webster 
expressed the belief that the Spring Show, having been put on a 
business basis, could be expected in normal years to provide the 
funds necessary for staging free Shows throughout the Summer. 
He closed his remarks by saying that a Budget Committee had 
been appointed and that all receipts and expenditures were being 
carefully audited. 

When making his report at the annual meeting, William Ellery, 
Chairman of the Committee on Exhibitions, stated that the de- 
cision of the Committee to have the comments of the judges made 
public on the exhibitors' cards had been well received and ex- 
pressed the belief that the custom would tend to improve the 
exhibits. 1 Mr. Ellery also referred to the point system which had 
been adopted for judging, saying that it had been under fire and 
sometimes justly. He was confident, however, that whatever faults 
seemed to exist did not lie in the system itself but in its misap- 
plication and said that certain changes were being made to obtain 
a more nearly perfect operation of the plan. 

The Daffodil Show, started in 1934 but skipped the next year, 

x The plan has been continued to some extent to the present time. 




Frontispiece of a Rare Book in the Library of the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society 




John S. Ames, Elected President of the Society in 1944 



BLACK INK UNEXPECTEDLY TURNS RED 51 

was resumed in 1946 and well attended. A lecture by Mrs. F. 
Stuart Foote of Grand Rapids, Mich., with "Daffodils" as her 
subject was made a feature of the Show and was well received. 
The Summer Shows were held under adverse weather conditions 
which limited the attendance. As part of a new plan, instituted in 
1 93 1 as noted, the Gladiolus Show and the Dahlia Show were 
placed in the hands of the two societies specializing in these 
flowers. 2 

The usual Fruit and Vegetable Show was omitted in 1936, in 
order that greater emphasis might be placed on the Autumn 
Show, at which time the Society was host to the American Orchid 
Society. It proved to be one of the best late-season Shows in 
years, with an attendance of 20,000 persons. 

As noted, the Trustees set aside $1,000 in January to begin 
the reclassification and recataloguing of the Library. Such a task 
was obviously needed, for the system then in use had been in- 
stalled thirty years before. It was to be a tedious undertaking, 
however, going along, of course, with the regular Library activ- 
ities. 3 A hint of these activities comes from the fact that 800 seed 
and plant catalogues from twenty-one different countries had 
been received the previous year, all of them requiring to be in- 
spected and filed. This is not an unimportant matter, for ques- 
tions as to where certain rare seeds or plants are to be obtained 
come continually to the Librarians. It would be difficult to find 
some of the answers anywhere else. A card index started at about 
the time we are considering gradually developed into an impor- 
tant adjunct of the Society's work. 

An important vote by the Trustees late in the year required 
that First-class Certificates should be given only to plants which 
had previously received an Award of Merit, a rule still in effect. 
Another vote of the Trustees favored the encouragement of wild- 
flower propagation by nurserymen, with awards to stimulate this 
work. It was felt that this was one of the best ways to aid in 

2 The plan proved so successful that it has been adhered to. To be sure, the 
Dahlia Show is no longer held, inasmuch as the popularity of this flower seems 
to have waned in New England and the Dahlia Society has become inactive, but 
iris specialists soon began showing under the new arrangement, with the Horti- 
cultural Society making all its facilities available without cost. 

8 The work was not started until 1939 and was interrupted for several years 
by the War. 



52 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

the preservation of wild plants in their native habitats. The rec- 
ords do not show, however, that the making of such awards was 
long continued. 

The basement of Horticultural Hall has a section commonly 
called the "catacombs." By making many changes there and by 
lowering the freight elevator, provision was made for the storage 
of peat moss, tables, horses and many tons of rocks needed for 
exhibition purposes. A well-equipped carpenter and paint shop 
was also installed. 

Getting rid of the pigeons and starlings, thousands of which 
had infested the building for several years was a problem which 
the Building Committee finally solved by having the various 
roosting places painted with a substance which was too sticky 
to be comfortable. Although the desired purpose was accom- 
plished, at least for the time being, it was not without a certain 
amount of notoriety when one pigeon was found on the sidewalk 
dead. 4 

The Society had much to offer the public in 1936, making its 
position as an educational institution secure. A course of lectures 
by Mrs. Julia A. Latimer of Mamaroneck, N. Y., her second, was 
well attended. Monthly lectures and exhibits were carried through 
the Winter in cooperation with the Gardeners' and Florists' Club 
of Boston. Edward C. Newell, President of the Massachusetts 
School of Art, gave two lectures on flower arrangement, as well as 
conducting a course under the auspices of the State Depart- 
ment of Education. Perhaps the most notable lecture was that 
of Miss Margaret Preininger of Los Angeles, with "Japanese 
Flower Arrangements" as her subject. 

Harlan P. Kelsey, selected to receive the George Robert White 
Medal of Honor of 1936, was a man who had won a high place 
in many branches of horticulture. As a nurseryman he had in- 
troduced many important new plants, particularly those of the 
Southern Allegheny Mountain region. He was perhaps the first 
nurseryman of importance to campaign for the use of hardy 
American plants in American gardens. He was a member of the 

4 The pigeon problem has repeatedly reappeared at intervals, largely because of 
women who insist upon throwing bread on the sidewalk for the birds, regardless 
of requests that they desist from so doing. 



BLACK INK UNEXPECTEDLY TURNS RED 53 

original committee responsible for "Standardized Plant Names." 
He was a member of the Southern Appalachian National Park 
Commission which selected three new national parks — Shenan- 
doah National Park in Virginia, the Great Smoky National Park 
in North Carolina and Tennessee, and Mammoth Cave National 
Park. For many years he was special advisor to the National 
Park Service. He was for two years President of the Appalachian 
Mountain Club, two years President of the American Association 
of Nurserymen, and the first President of the Massachusetts 
Federation of Planning Boards. He succeeded Ernest H. Wilson 
as President of the Horticultural Club of Boston and was an 
active member of the Massachusetts Trustees of Public Reserva- 
tion. He was given an honorary degree by Harvard University. 
And this brief summary touches only the high points of his re- 
markable career. 

The Thomas Roland Medal was awarded Elmer D. Smith of 
Adrian, Mich., who may well be called the father of the modern 
chrysanthemum in America, although he had done much important 
work with other flowers. 

Robert M. Grey, awarded the Jackson Dawson Memorial 
Medal, was not widely known, but had done much important 
work as Superintendent of the Atkins Institution of the Arnold 
Arboretum at Soledad, Cienfuegos, Cuba. He had been retired 
when this award was made. 

Norman Taylor won the Society's Gold Medal, largely for his 
work as editor of the "Garden Dictionary." A Gold Medal was 
awarded also to Rufus Witaker Stimson for a distinguished 
career of leadership in the training of youth for agricultural 
pursuits. He was Supervisor of Agricultural Education in Massa- 
chusetts for twenty- four years and was due for retirement in 
1938. 

An attractive porch added to the residence of Mrs. Charles S. 
Jenney in Brookline won for Mrs. Jenney the Albert C. Burrage 
Porch Prize for 1936. 

There were seventy-nine names in the necrology list of 1936, 
among them that of William C. Endicott, who was President of 
the Society in the years 1919 and 1920. This was during a period 
of readjustment when acumen, patience and devotion were greatly 



54 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

needed. The membership was only a thousand. Fruit displays had 
become meagre, for growers were hampered by a shortage of 
labor and poor transportation. There was disagreement within 
the Society as to the course which should be pursued. Some in- 
fluential members complained that the Society was becoming too 
floricultural. The growing absence of commercial men from the 
committees was being criticized. It was a situation such as might 
be expected at the close of a world war. Mr. Endicott dealt with 
it wisely and patiently, reconciling differences and pointing to 
greater progress through increased service to the public by means 
of Shows and other avenues to horticultural knowledge. Mr. Ben- 
son writes: "The reconstruction Mr. Endicott accomplished was 
firm and complete." An excellent portrait of Mr. Endicott, given 
to the Society by his widow, hangs in Horticultural Hall. 

The optimism in evidence at the beginning of the year had 
faded by the time the books were closed. Indeed, not much of it 
had been left after the Spring Show had ended, the profit having 
been very small because of weather conditions, as has been noted. 
The deficit, already mentioned, was set at $72.58, but it had been 
necessary to draw on the Show Insurance Fund for $2,800 to 
bring the Treasurer's books even close to balancing. Thus, of the 
$3,000 added to the Fund at the beginning of the year, only $200 
remained when the year had reached its end. This was an ab- 
normal situation, of course; the rest of the Society's activities had 
been on a very satisfactory basis. 



1937— LORD ABERCONWAY SEES 
AN UNUSUAL SHOW 

IORD ABERCONWAYS visit was considered, doubtless, the 
horticultural highpoint of 1937 in Boston. As President 
^ of the Royal Horticultural Society, Lord Aberconway had 
world-wide prestige, but he was a notable figure apart from that 
distinction. His estate was one of the best in England and his 
knowledge of plants astonishing. Although Lord Aberconway 
visited all three of the great Spring Shows, he came to this coun- 
try on the invitation of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society 
and it was through this Society that all the preliminary arrange- 
ments were made. It should be said in this connection that the 
late William H. Judd of the Arnold Arboretum, a personal friend 
of Lord Aberconway, made the original suggestion to his lordship 
and that much of the credit for this visit, the first official visit 
of the kind in the history of the three societies, is due him. 

Lord Aberconway seemed to be much impressed with the 
Shows but expressed surprise that salesmen with pencil and pad 
were not to be found at each exhibit as in England. This is a 
practice which, of course, has always been frowned on in this 
country. 

A dinner for the members of the Society was held in Horticul- 
tural Hall at the time of the Spring Show, the first dinner of the 
kind in fifty years. Lord Aberconway was one of the speakers 
and made a delightful address, with unexpected reference to some 
events which took place in the early history of the Society. The 
dinner offered an excellent opportunity for the presentation of 
the President's Cup, which had been won by Thomas Roland, 
Inc. of Nahant, for a splendid exhibit of acacias. Robert Roland 
accepted the cup for his firm. Another interesting event at the 
dinner was the presentation to Mr. Webster, as President of the 
Society, of a Medal from the Holland Bulb Exporters Associa- 



56 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

tion. John Scheepers of New York acted as spokesman for the 
association. 

The Spring Show itself, which may well be considered here, 
was offered with a certain amount of misgiving, for the experi- 
ment was being tried of building Grand Hall into a single unit — 
a picture of Holland with a wide canal extending the length of 
the hall. The plan, suggested by Wilfrid Wheeler of the Exhibi- 
tion Committee, brought many problems to Mr. Nehrling as 
Exhibition Manager, but he was fortunate in obtaining the serv- 
ices of Egbert Hans, an artist combining imagination with skill. 
Mr. Hans painted all the scenic backgrounds in Grand Hall, help- 
ing to create a remarkably realistic Dutch village. His work was 
so expertly done that the Society awarded him its Gold Medal. 
The Show increased the Society's income for the year by 
$23,941.01. 

One of the prizes at the Spring Show was a magnificent gold- 
lined Silver Cup presented by the Royal Horticultural Society 
to be awarded to the amateur exhibit showing the greatest skill 
in culture and arrangement. This cup, a fine old English piece, 
was won by the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum for a rare and 
unusual collection of Jasminum nudiflorum. This seems to be a 
good place to note that Lord Aberconway himself was voted the 
Society's large Gold Medal to mark his visit, although technically 
it was for his distinguished service to horticulture. 

The Gold Medal of the Horticultural Society of New York was 
awarded the Cape Ann Garden Club, while the Gold Medal of 
the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society went to the L. Sherman 
Adams Company for a group of orchids. 

The 1937 annual meeting stands out from all similar gather- 
ings in the Society's history for it was attended by more mem- 
bers than any other annual meeting before or since. The reason was 
plain. The fact had been learned in advance that the name of a 
second candidate for President, that of Will C. Curtis, would be 
found on the ballot. It was the first time for decades at least that 
there had been competition for any office. When the polls were 
closed 577 ballots had been cast and Mr. Webster was found to 
have been reelected by an overwhelming majority. 

In his address at this meeting Mr. Webster reviewed the So- 



LORD ABERCONWAY SEES AN UNUSUAL SHOW 57 

ciety's activities in the light of changing times. He stressed the 
need of flexible programs and in particular the purpose to be of 
service to all people, members and non-members alike. "It is a 
matter of comment," he said "that visitors to the Library and 
to the various offices are invariably treated with courtesy and 
consideration — no matter whether they be estate owners or the 
humblest of employes . . ." He also mentioned that the Society 
was still maintaining an employment bureau for the assistance of 
gardeners seeking positions, this service being free. As a matter 
of fact, this branch of the Society's work, under the direction of 
Mr. Geehan, had become so satisfactory that most other Boston 
agencies were sending their applicants to Horticultural Hall. 

The Secretary's report at this meeting showed the membership 
hovering around the nine thousand mark, with a good prospect 
of passing it before the end of the year. With increasing member- 
ship, however, there came need for additional working space. The 
Trustees had voted, therefore, to construct another large room on 
the third floor and to extend the elevator to that floor. Provision 
was made for a door into a third room, if such a room should be 
needed in the course of time. Before the next annual meeting Mrs. 
S. V. R. Crosby was to present the Society a dozen new chairs 
for this room, as well as several pictures. Pictures came, too, 
from Wilfrid Wheeler, who also gave the Society two handsome 
metal vases, which found a place in the Secretary's office. Pre- 
viously Mr. Wheeler had presented the Library a large glass case 
designed for the display of curios. A stand for this case was con- 
structed under the direction of Mr. Cummings, Chairman of the 
Building Committee, and it was then placed in a corner of the 
Library, being used to contain replicas of the President's Cup and 
the Albert C. Burrage Gold Vase, along with the Beacon Hill 
Garden Club's Cup and many medals. 1 

The Year Book for 1937 contained an exceptionally compre- 
hensive list of unusual flowering and fruiting shrubs hardy in 
New England and suitable for gardens in this section. It was pre- 
pared by Harlan P. Kelsey, then a Trustee of the Society, and 
his son Seth, who was to become a Trustee in later years. This 
list may be examined in the Library at Horticultural Hall. 

1 This exhibit of the Society's trophies continues to interest many visitors. 



58 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

The Year Book also contained a remarkable chart which was 
prepared by Professor Oakes Ames showing the botanical back- 
ground of horticulture and the relation of economic botany to 
gardening. Any visitor to the Library may examine this chart. 

It was voted by the Trustees in 1937 to completely revise the 
By-Laws and submit them to the Society members at the annual 
meeting in 1938. A committee consisting of Messrs. Carter, 
Ames, Ellery, Hunnewell and Roland was appointed to undertake 
this work. 

After much debate, extending over several meetings, the Trus- 
tees voted to make garden club exhibits eligible for sweepstake 
prizes at the Spring Show. Another important action was the 
adoption of a rule that orchids which are submitted for exhibi- 
tion must have been the property of the exhibitor for at least 
one year. 

The Society had continued to co-operate with the Gardeners' 
and Florists' Club in putting on monthly meetings with lectures, 
but the number of plants sent in for inspection had been growing 
smaller. The inference was that the gardeners were beginning to 
tire of making two trips a month to the Hall. There was a series 
of lectures in a science course conducted by the National Garden- 
ers' Association, and another series, this one by Robert Sturtevant 
on "Home Garden Design" under the auspices of the State 
Department of Education. 

The Spring Show has been dealt with at some length in con- 
nection with the visit of Lord Aberconway but some attention 
should be given the smaller shows of 1937. Wilfrid Wheeler had 
succeeded Harold Ross as Chairman of the Committee on Ex- 
hibitions and liked the Daffodil Exhibition in April so well that 
he thought it should become a regular part of the schedule. 2 

Although the June Show was primarily designed for peony dis- 
plays, it was made notable by a remarkable exhibit of hardy 
lilies by John Scheepers of New York. Said Mr. Wheeler, "It is 
doubtful if ever before at any Exhibition of our Society has such 
a variety of liliums been exhibited by one person." Mr. Scheepers 

2 This was to happen but the date was to be changed to coincide with that of 
the annual meeting in May and this arrangement has been continued to the 
present time, serving the excellent purpose of increasing the attendance at the 
annual meeting. 




Edward I. Farrington, Secretary from 1924 to 1947 



LORD ABERCONWAY SEES AN UNUSUAL SHOW 59 

was quite properly awarded the Society's Gold Medal for this 
exhibit. 

The New York Experiment Station at Geneva brought to 
Boston a remarkable exhibit of seedling grapes for the October 
Show. It aroused much interest, too, with an exhibit of hazel 
nuts, displaying some fifty seedlings. 

The wide variation in the climate of Massachusetts was 
brought into perspective at the Autumn Show, for splendid 
hybrid tea roses grown out of doors in Falmouth were among the 
exhibits, along with much greenhouse material. It was a colorful 
Show and a garden featuring chrysanthemums set up for Mrs. 
Francis B. Crowninshield of Marblehead by her very capable gar- 
dener Thomas Murray was awarded the Albert C. Burrage Gold 
Vase as the most outstanding exhibit of the year, not excepting 
any of those at the Spring Show. 

When the special medal awards were announced late in the 
year it was found that the coveted George Robert White Medal 
of Honor had gone to Frederick Law Olmsted, a distinguished 
landscape architect of Brookline. 

The Thomas Roland Medal, awarded for skill in horticulture, 
went to Dr. A. B. Stout of the New York Botanical Garden, spe- 
cial emphasis being laid on his work in the breeding and propa- 
gation of daylilies. 

J. E. Spingarn, known far and wide for his work with clematis, 
which he helped through his writing to make popular, received 
the Jackson Dawson Memorial Medal. Richard Wellington, who 
had been responsible for the attractive fruit exhibits from the 
Agricultural Experiment Station at Geneva, N. Y. at the Society's 
Shows, and who had been eminently successful in fruit breeding, 
was awarded the Society's large Gold Medal. A similar Medal 
went to Dr. Alfred Rehder, curator of the Arnold Arboretum of 
Harvard University. Dr. Rehder ranked as one of the great 
botanists of his time and his stature grew with each passing year. 
His book, Manual of Trees and Shrubs, is found on the desks of 
practicing horticulturists throughout the land. 

The H. H. Hunnewell Gold Medal, which is only given for 
estates, was awarded to Mrs. William Hewson Baltzell for her 
place in Dover known as "Elm Bank." 



60 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

A Silver Medal was awarded to Mrs. George D. Forbes of 
North Egremont for her estate known as "Orchard Farm" and 
another to Mrs. Charles C. Griswold for her estate at Stockbridge 
called "Hillhouse." 

It was voted to award a Blue Ribbon Certificate to a garden 
at Westfield, Mass., known as "Grandmother's Garden" and 
maintained as a public project. This garden, colonial in type, was 
developed under the direction of Mrs. Albert E. Fowler, the 
design being drawn by Thomas Desmond of Simsbury, Conn. The 
garden, still in existence, is surrounded by a traditional white 
picket fence, and the paths are paved with stones from old walls. 
A sundial in the center rests on an ancient millstone and from it 
radiate beds bordered with handmade bricks. In the planting are 
herb and lily gardens. The garden was named in honor of a 
woman widely known as Grandmother Steiger, an enthusiastic 
gardener during her long life. 

A Blue Ribbon Certificate was also voted to Alfred H. Mar- 
chant of Winchester, Mass., for an extensive wild garden. 

An unusual award was that of a Blue Ribbon Certificate to a 
circle at the corner of two streets in Brookline which had been 
planted with exceptional skill and good taste. The design for the 
planting was made by Sidney Shurcliff, landscape architect of 
Boston, and work was done by the Brookline Committee on 
Planting Trees, E. B. Dane, chairman. 

Two other rather exceptional awards were made. One was a 
Garden Certificate given to the City of Newton, Mass., for excel- 
lent planting around the new city hall. The other was a Garden 
Certificate to the Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company 
of Springfield, Mass., for the planting of the grounds around the 
home of that organization. It was felt that these two plantings 
were inspirational and that attention should be called to them. 

The year 1937 closed was a favorable balance of $2,880.79, 
although Horticulture had lost $182.05, and the Fall Show 
$1,026.74, and with a new Trustee in the person of Robert 
Roland. 



1938— A TRANQUIL YEAR ENDS 
WITH A HURRICANE 

IT WAS a tranquil year on which the Society entered in Jan- 
uary of 1938, although certain disturbing undercurrents were 
to reach the surface at the year's end. The number of mem- 
bers had finally passed the nine thousand mark and the Secretary 
was dreaming of 10,000 in the months ahead. 

The Spring Show opened auspiciously and made a profit of 
$19,458.50, which amount was considered reasonably satisfactory 
in view of the times, although down four thousand dollars from 
the previous year. The attendance fluctuated, as several days were 
warm and sunny, but on Friday 22,000 persons crowded into the 
halls, the largest number for any one day on record at that time. 
Perhaps the word "crowded" should be used cautiously, however, 
for the aisles had been so broadened and the exhibits so arranged 
that very little congestion was felt in spite of the large attend- 
ance. This was a measure to which the Exhibition Committee and 
the Show Manager had given much thought. It had been neces- 
sary to make a slight reduction in the number of exhibits but 
the Show had not suffered from that fact and abundant color 
pleased the public. 

Grand Hall had again been treated as a unit, with a modern 
country house surrounded by modern gardens, and again Egbert 
Hans had been helpful. The grouping of long-stemmed roses in 
tall vases in Paul Revere Hall, so placed that visitors could walk 
around them, excited much favorable comment. 

One of the most important events of the year was the adoption 
of new By-Laws at the annual meeting in May. This was to keep 
abreast of changes taking place since the publication of the By- 
Laws formulated under the direction of Mr. Burrage in 1930. 
These newer By-Laws are still in force at this writing, although 



62 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

several important amendments have been added. They may be 
consulted at any time, of course, at Horticultural Hall. 

In his address at the annual meeting President Webster dis- 
cussed several matters that had been called to his attention. He 
said that some of the older members had wondered at the size 
of the staff in the Hall and the extent of their activities. He 
thought that these people might have in mind the years not long 
before when the Society's work was carried on by the Secretary 
and the Librarian along with a janitor and when all correspondence 
was done with pen and ink. Mr. Webster then said that the So- 
ciety had not become less prosperous because of its increased 
activities but had paid its way through its period of expansion 
and was better off financially than when it had only a thousand 
members and three employes. He expressed his pride in the 
building as one of the city's architectural landmarks, but wished 
that there might be a canopy or marquee over the entrance to 
mark the entrance doors and provide a greater feeling of friendli- 
ness. 

Mr. Wheeler made his final report as Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Exhibitions. He had given full support to the Spring 
Shows, but had a lingering doubt as to the course being pursued. 
He remembered the successful Show at Horticultural Hall in 
1932 and wondered if the huge effort and expenditure at Me- 
chanics Building were justified. 

William Ellery, speaking for the Prize Committee, recom- 
mended that the Gold Medal be given only to exhibits of excep- 
tional distinction. The Committee felt that Silver Medals should 
be awarded for exhibits of outstanding merit and Bronze Medals 
for those of high average value, all this to make the Silver and 
Bronze Medals more highly appreciated. A plan whereby the 
score was made the basis of medal awards had been eliminated 
but this had not reduced the number of medals bestowed by the 
judges. It may be said that much difficulty was found in putting 
Mr. Ellery's recommendations into effect. Exhibitors continued to 
feel that a high score should merit a Gold Medal. 

Another recommendation, however, was put into immediate 
effect and has been continued. It requires that the awarding of 
the Society's medals be postponed until after the first day of the 



A TRANQUIL YEAR ENDS WITH A HURRICANE 63 

Show, thus prolonging the interest of the exhibitors and the public 
and making the work of the judges less arduous. 

Mr. Webster was reelected President at the annual meeting. 
Dr. Elmer D. Merrill and William P. Walcott were added to the 
Board of Trustees at this meeting. Later Winthrop L. Carter was 
chosen to fill out the unexpired term of Robert H. Roland, who 
had resigned to become Secretary of the Society of American 
Florists and Ornamental Horticulturists with headquarters in 
Chicago. James Methven was promoted to be Chairman of the 
Committee on Prizes, which position Mr. Roland had held, and 
Edward Norberg was appointed to fill the vacancy on the Com- 
mittee. 

The Library had a busy year. Five hundred more books than 
in 1937 were borrowed, a total of 5,222. The increase in the num- 
ber of books circulated by mail was noticeable and yet a greater 
number of people visited the reading room. The Librarian re- 
ported a surprising demand for material on special genera and 
groups of plants, uncovering a weakness in the Library's re- 
sources which needed to be strengthened. Opening the Library in 
the evening during the Fall Shows proved a successful experi- 
ment, with many interested visitors, some of whom had not 
known before that such a Library existed. A Society booth at the 
Spring Show, manned by members of the Library staff had 
become wholly worthwhile. 

Business conditions were not good in 1938 but Horticulture 
made slow gains, with a circulation exceeding 30,000. Advertis- 
ing shrank a little but subscriptions were up $3,000. The paper 
had a net income of $409. 

Mr. Nehrling was elected President of the Society of American 
Florists and Ornamental Horticulturists in 1938 and presided at 
the annual meeting in Toronto. He was presented a chest of silver 
as a tribute to his work as President. 

The Benevolent Fraternity Fruit and Flower Mission began 
its seventieth year of activity in 1938. This well-seasoned or- 
ganization had started occupying a room rent free in Horti- 
cultural Hall at the invitation of the Board of Trustees in 1925. 
Mrs. Emily I. Elliott, the efficient Executive Secretary, in her 
annual report appearing in the Year Book of the Society, men- 



64 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

tioned the extreme heat of the 1937 Summer, but said it had not 
seriously reduced the number of hampers, boxes and baskets from 
outlying towns. The number was 705 as against 719 the previous 
year. All this material, largely in the form of cut flowers, was 
made into bouquets as usual by volunteer labor and delivered to 
hospitals, old peoples' home and shut-ins. The Lexington Field 
and Garden Club sent in sixty-three Christmas wreaths, along 
with "apple Christmas trees" with miniature trimmings and many 
gifts. More than 15,000 carnations were received from the Amer- 
ican Carnation Society. Eighteen women helped in the distribu- 
tion after the Gladiolus Show on the Summer's hottest day — 98 
degrees. Thirty-five elderly individuals were provided tickets for 
the Spring Show through the kindness of friends. The part taken 
by the Society in this good work is not to be overlooked. 

News of the death of Nathaniel T. Kidder in July of 1938 was 
received with deep sorrow, for Mr. Kidder had been a wheelhorse 
in the management of the Society's affairs for many years. He 
served as President from 1903 through 1905 and became Chair- 
man of the Library Committee following the death of Professor 
Charles S. Sargent in 1927. He had been elected a Trustee in 
1910 and had won many prizes at the Society's exhibitions and 
for his estate. He bequeathed $5,000 to the Society for the benefit 
of the Library as well as a collection of books and several paint- 
ings. 

In the course of the year the Society lost another member, 
who had kept its interests close to his heart. Edwin Hale Lincoln 
of Pittsfield was killed by an automobile at the age of ninety. He 
had won fame for his work in photographing wild flowers and 
was given a Silver Medal in 1929. Under an arrangement pre- 
viously made, the Society inherited some two thousand negatives, 
mostly 8 x 10 glass plates, which were moved to Horticultural 
Hall and stored in a darkroom which had been improvised from 
unused space under the third-story floor. 

Charles J. Sander was yet another member of prominence who 
passed away in 1938. Mr. Sander, who joined the Society in 1897, 
was superintendent of Professor Sargent's estate, Holm Lea, in 
Brookline for fifty- three years. Previously he had worked for 
Francis Parkman, the famous historian, who was at one time 



A TRANQUIL YEAR ENDS WITH A HURRICANE 65 

President of the Society. Mr. Sander had received seven Gold 
Medals, including the Jackson Dawson Memorial Medal. 

As usual near the close of the year, the Trustees announced 
various awards based on committee recommendations. The cov- 
eted George Robert White Medal of Honor went rather unex- 
pectedly to Robert Moses, park commissioner of New York City. 
Mr. Moses was not commonly thought of as a great horticulturist, 
but the Committee on Special Medals felt that his work in ex- 
tending the park system of New York, in the planting and 
preservation of trees and in teaching the love of nature to the 
younger generation had made him a logical recipient of this award. 

Alex Cummings of Bristol, Conn., received the Thomas Roland 
Medal, having gained a wide reputation for his success in develop- 
ing Korean hybrid chrysanthemums as well as for his work with 
other perennials. The Jackson Dawson Memorial Medal went to 
Joseph G. Gable of Stewartstown, Pa., for his work as a hy- 
bridizer and propagator of rhododendons. 

The Gold Medal of the Society was awarded Professor Edward 
A. White of Cornell University with this citation: "His teaching 
over a long term of years has had a profound influence on the 
lives of many horticultural students." A Gold Medal was awarded 
David Fairchild of Coconut Grove, Fla. for his great work in 
the introduction of new fruits. 

A Gold Medal went to Cherry Hill Nurseries of West Newbury 
for many years of valued support, especially at the Peony Shows. 
A Gold Medal was given John C. Wister, Secretary of the Penn- 
sylvania Horticultural Society, adding to his many honors. Mr. 
Wister was and is well known as an iris, peony and bulb author- 
ity, the author of several books, an expert landscape architect 
and a man of high horticultural standing. 1 

The Albert C. Burrage Gold Vase was awarded Mr. and Mrs. 
Ben: Perley Poore Mosely of Ipswich for an azalea garden set up 
by them at the Spring Show, this being considered the outstand- 
ing exhibit of the year at any of the Shows. The Albert C. Bur- 
rage Porch Prize went to Miss Alice G. Higgins of Newburyport 
for a porch attached to her house during the year and overlooking 
a garden. 

x He relinquished his position as Secretary of the Pennsylvania Society in 1952. 



66 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

A Gold Medal from the William N. Craig Lily Fund was voted 
Mr. and Mrs. M. M. Van Beuren of Newport, R. I. as a special 
award for their exhibit at the Spring Show in 1938. This exhibit 
was so outstanding that Joseph A. Winsock, superintendent for 
Mr. and Mrs. Van Beuren, was awarded a special Gold Certificate 
for his exceptional skill in the forcing of thirty lily varieties into 
full flower at one time — something never before recorded. Mr. 
Winsock was an especially able gardener who often exhibited in 
Horticultural Hall as well as at Mechanics Building and who 
managed a large and elaborate estate at Newport. Later he was 
brutally murdered for no apparent reason in one of the green- 
houses on the estate. 

The recommendations of the Garden Committee were acted 
upon favorably as follows: 

The award of the H. H. Hunnewell Gold Medal to Mr. and 
Mrs. Geoffrey Whitney of Milton for an estate "of unusual ex- 
cellence, containing gardens of several types and planted with 
much choice material." 

The award of the Society's Gold Medal to Appleton Farms, 
Ipswich, "a farmstead for three centuries, tilled and cherished as 
an habitation by the Appleton family." 

The award of the Society's Gold Medal to the Isabella Stewart 
Gardner Museum "for the garden court which it contains and 
the high quality of the plants shown there." 

The award of a Blue Ribbon Certificate to Mrs. Lindsley 
Loring of Westwood for "a large collection of irises grown by an 
amateur." 

In September of 1938 New England was swept by a devastating 
hurricane which did an immense amount of damage to horticultural 
property and from which many members of the Society suffered 
loss, particularly in the matter of ornamentals. Accordingly it 
seemed helpful to have Dr. E. P. Felt of Stamford, Conn., deliver 
a lecture on "What To Do About Your Trees." Dr. Felt, a 
recognized expert, gave his listeners much useful advice. This was 
the first major hurricane in New England for a hundred years. 
Many months were required for the restoration of gardens and 
estates. Miss Keener resigned as associate editor. 

In November George L. Fischer of Maplewood, N. J. lectured 



tlb? (&arbnt (CUth iFriterattmt 




OP 



c l)c91ta55acnu5clfe^rltcuHuraI cVcicKj 



/// 












Sc/'tf// Awarded to the Society in 1Q45 by the Garden Club 
Federation of Massachusetts. 



A TRANQUIL YEAR ENDS WITH A HURRICANE 67 

on "Gourds and Gourd Culture," this lecture being given in co- 
operation with the New England Gourd Society, which had be- 
come a very active organization. 

The Library made one purchase of such importance that it 
should have special mention. It was Jean Simon Lerner's "Fi- 
gures des Plantes Economiques," which included hundreds of 
flowers and vegetables of the late 18th century in eight volumes. 
The set remains a rare item. 

There were two noteworthy gifts. One was the library of the 
late William J. Stewart, presented by his daughter, Mrs. Ellen 
Stewart Crouse. Mr. Stewart was well known as the founder of 
Horticulture and its editor for many years. The second gift was 
the Frances Torrey Norton Memorial from the Herb Society of 
America, a collection of books of special interest to persons grow- 
ing herbs. 

Much had taken place in 1938 but unfortunately the year 
ended with a deficit of $2,333.77. 



1939— THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 
TAKES DRASTIC ACTION 

SOME cold, hard and rather unpleasant facts confronted the 
Trustees when they met for their first session in January 
of 1939. Business conditions were not good. Europe was 
having a war. The income from investments was shrinking. There 
was red ink in the books of the Treasurer. In addition, member- 
ships had failed to show an increase for the first time since Mr. 
Farrington became Secretary. Instead there had been a small 
decline, falling below 9,000. Thus the 10,000 mark, a dream of 
the year before, had gone aglimmering. 

The Trustees took what seemed the one obvious path by which 
to meet the situation. They voted to recommend at the annual 
meeting in May that the dues be raised from two dollars to three 
dollars. In the meantime they were obliged to take measures 
which would make such a change possible, for the dues of the 
Society, strange as it may seem, are fixed by law. The articles of 
incorporation, as of 1829, set the dues at two dollars and there 
they had remained for more than a century. It is to be remem- 
bered, however, that this amount made the dues seem fairly high 
125 years ago. 

At times the Society had tried to increase its membership in- 
come by imposing initiation fees, but that plan had merely re- 
duced the number of membership applications. Now it was neces- 
sary to go to the General Court again and a bill was introduced 
through a friendly member permitting the dues to be raised to a 
sum not exceeding five dollars. The five-dollar limit was wisely 
decided on because of possible future contingencies. The bill was 
passed and the governor signed it. 

The increase of one dollar was accepted at the annual meet- 
ing by a vote of 101 to 11. Then began a downward curve in 



THE TRUSTEES TAKE DRASTIC ACTION 69 

membership which lasted until 1942, when a low point of 6,850 
was reached. From then on the curve was upward again, although 
the number of life members continued to decline. 

James Methven, now Chairman of the Committee on Prizes, 
revealed some of the aims and methods of his group, surprising 
many members by stating that as many as 122 judges had worked 
at the eight Shows of the year. He explained that before each 
Show the Committee met and discussed the possible choices at 
some length. An attempt was made to avoid using the same 
judges year after year. Information on the men available as 
judges was to be found in an excellent card index which had 
proved very useful. This was an arrangement worked out by a 
previous Committee under the direction of William Ellery, to 
whom, Mr. Methven said, his Committee was greatly indebted. 

Robert Stone had to report, as Chairman of the Committee on 
Lectures and Publications, that business conditions had not been 
favorable for magazine expansion, although Horticulture had not 
suffered greatly. There had been a backward season, which had 
affected advertising, but the subscription income was $3,000 
greater than in the previous year. About $800 had come in from 
the sale of books. "The Gardener's Travel Book" by E. I. Far- 
rington was being widely distributed. Mrs. Hollis Webster's book 
on herbs and Mrs. H. H. Buxton's begonia book, sponsored by 
the Society, were outstanding. Mr. Stone emphasized that the pub- 
lication of a magazine with a national circulation is a business in 
itself, with ramifications covering many fields. He pointed out, 
however, that it worked in particularly well with the activities at 
Horticultural Hall, offering an oportunity to present the Society's 
work to thousands of persons who otherwise would know nothing 
about it. He said that Horticulture had been of great benefit in 
building up the membership of the Pennsylvania Horticultural So- 
ciety and the Horticultural Society of New York, as well as that 
of the home organization. 

An important lecture was given in January in co-operation 
with the New England Wild Flower Preservation Society. The 
speaker was Dr. W. H. Camp of the New York Botanical Garden, 
his subject being "Hunting Wild Flowers in Mexico." In April 



yo TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

George L. Slate of the State Experiment Station at Geneva, N. Y. 
lectured on "Lilies and How to Grow Them." Mr. Slate is the 
son-in-law of the late Dr. Ernest H. Wilson. 

A Camellia Show in January had now become established. Al- 
though small and held in the side hall, the material shown was 
excellent. 

The Daffodil Show had become a permanent event, on the 
day of the annual meeting and the day after. A third day was 
added in 1939 for a display of azaleas from Ernest Borowski's 
greenhouse. About 3,100 came to see this Show. The Tulip Show, 
established the year before, when it was separated from the 
Daffodil Show, attracted 2,745 visitors. 

The garden clubs took over Grand Hall at the Spring Exhibi- 
tion in 1939 with a unified exhibit of great charm. A colonial 
house on the stage faced an attractive garden with a fountain. 
Both the house and the fountain were designed by Miss Helen 
Brown of the Lowthorpe School of Landscape Architecture for 
Women. A knot garden set up by Sherman Eddy of Hartford was 
one of the features of this Show. Another was an azalea exhibit 
which won the Gold Medals of both the Horticultural Society of 
New York and the Massachusetts Horticultural Society for 
Ernest Borowski. Albert A. Hulley staged such an attractive rose 
garden that it won the President's Cup and the trophy of the 
Massachusetts Department of Agriculture. The Garden Club of 
America awarded the Sarah Todd Bulkley Silver Medal to Mrs. 
Irving C. Wright, Chairman of the Massachusetts Garden Clubs 
Exhibition Committee, and the Gold Medal of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society went to the entire committee for the "horti- 
cultural excellence and tasteful design" of the house and garden 
in Grand Hall. The Spring Show was attended by 86,199 visitors 
and made a profit of $16,668.85. 

This was a period when certain estate owners and some garden- 
ers were devoting their best efforts to decorative and even dra- 
matic displays of fruits and vegetables, arranging them in what was 
commonly known as the English style. One of the best of such 
displays was seen at the 1939 show. It was set up for Dr. Thomas 
Barbour by his gardener, Louis Campagnolo, and attracted much 



THE TRUSTEES TAKE DRASTIC ACTION 71 

attention. A few years later this type of exhibit had ceased to 
appear, partly because of the expense involved but also because 
few men capable of doing the work could be found. These changes 
are inevitable. In this period the huge bomb chrysanthemums with 
a single flower to a stem which had long been featured at Autumn 
Shows were disappearing. It was costing a dollar a flower to pro- 
duce them, and they required an undue amount of greenhouse 
space. 

The attendance of 7,611 at the Fruit and Vegetable Show was 
considered good. As a matter of fact it topped by six hundred that 
at the Autumn Show. The latter was a beautiful Show, neverthe- 
less, including as it did a chrysanthemum garden set up by Peter 
Arnott for Mr. and Mrs. Edwin S. Webster which was awarded the 
Albert C. Burrage Gold Vase as the most outstanding exhibit of 
the year at any of the Society's Shows. A second very lovely 
chrysanthemum garden was arranged for Mr. and Mrs. Francis 
B. Crowninshield. Good as this Show was, it had a net loss of 
$1,077.74. 

The Committee on Special Medals, of which Oakes Ames was 
Chairman, made its annual recommendations to the Trustees in 
September and they were immediately adopted. Dr. George T. 
Moore, director of the Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Louis, 
was awarded the George Robert White Medal of Honor for 
eminent service to horticulture as shown by his work in develop- 
ing and maintaining one of the world's most important botanical 
and horticultural institutions. 

August Koch, the recipient of the Thomas Roland Medal, had 
just been retired as head of the Chicago Park System, due to 
age limitations. He, like Dr. Moore, combined horticultural skill 
with unusual executive ability. The park system of Chicago grew 
to remarkable proportions during his long term of office and he 
helped to build a collection of conservatory plants at Garfield 
Park unequalled anywhere else in the country. 

It was quite appropriate that the Jackson Dawson Memorial 
Medal should go to Walter D. Brownell of Little Compton, R. I., 
as Mr. Dawson, like Mr. Brownell, was especially interested in 
the hybridization of roses. Mr. Brownell's work along this line 



72 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

had been highly scientific, resulting in the development of climb- 
ing and bush roses suited to the colder sections of the country 
under the name of sub-zero varieties. 

In awarding its large Gold Medal to Dr. William A. Taylor of 
Washington, D. C. the Society bestowed an honor which perhaps 
should have gone to him years before, for he was now retired 
after long and valuable service as head of the Bureau of Plant 
Industry. 

To Colonel R. H. Montgomery of Coconut Grove, Fla., went 
the Society's Medal because, although as an amateur, he had 
built up one of the finest collections of tropical and semi-tropical 
plants to be found in this country, assembling them at what is now 
called the Fairchild Tropical Garden at Coconut Grove, Fla. 

There are some persons whose contributions are more or less 
anonymous, but none the less important. As Executive Secretary 
of the Horticultural Society of New York Mrs. Elizabeth Peter- 
son was long the moving spirit in much of that Society's activities. 
She had done much to promote the success of the International 
Flower Show in New York and her assistance to the garden clubs 
in the New York area will be attested by the members of those 
organizations. She was awarded a Gold Medal. 

As a kind of anomaly the demands on the Society for informa- 
tion, advice and help in various other ways greatly increased in 
1939, even while the list of members was becoming smaller. In 
particular, additional space was needed by various organizations 
which wished to establish headquarters at Horticultural Hall. 
This need was met by flooring over the upper part of the smaller 
exhibition hall, which was a very lofty room, in this way provid- 
ing office space for the Garden Club Federation of Massachusetts, 
the Boston Mycological Club, the New England Gourd Society, 
the New England Gladiolus Society and the Herb Society of 
America. The garden clubs had long wanted accommodations large 
enough for an executive office with a permanent secretary. The 
room now provided for them was adequate in size, conveniently 
located, well-lighted and pleasant. 

Only a nominal rental charge was made for the new offices, but 
Horticultural Hall now housed six organizations of a horticultural 
nature in addition to the Horticultural Society itself, with all its 



THE TRUSTEES TAKE DRASTIC ACTION 73 

different departments, thus making it the largest and most com- 
plete Garden Center in the United States. The opening of the 
new rooms was made the occasion for an "open house/' which 
was attended by about 1,500 people. The additional space was 
provided at a cost of $4,000. In 1939 the Trustees voted to per- 
mit the resumption of rummage sales in the Hall, after excluding 
them a second time. 

The demand for additional services already noted extended to 
the Library, which had almost a thousand borrowers, some of 
them living in distant states. At the end of 1939 the book collec- 
tion comprised 26,377 bound volumes, of which number 522 
were added during the year. 

Although 1,300 packages were being mailed each year, very few 
books were lost. Also, only a few were removed surreptitiously 
from the shelves. The total loss had been an average of twelve 
books a year. No thefts of books of great value had been discov- 
ered. 

Prizes offered by Horticulture for garden club Year Books 
brought in several hundred such books, some of them having 
unusual merit. This offer of prizes, made yearly, has been helpful 
to the Library and to a host of garden clubs. After the prizes 
have been announced, all the Year Books received are placed as 
an exhibit in the Library, attracting much attention. Three travel- 
ing collections were made up in 1939 and the Year Books went 
to many parts of the country, with calls even from California and 
Alabama. It soon became necessary to make reservations far 
ahead. Club officers, program chairman and members studied 
them eagerly. 

The Society found itself faced in 1939 with problems having 
to do with the construction of a new subway under Huntington 
Avenue, with a station and underpass at the corner of Massachu- 
setts Avenue. This work was to be underway for a long time and 
to create much annoyance from noise and dust. Competent engi- 
neers were engaged to make sure the building would not be dam- 
aged by the construction work. The subway was eventually to 
prove beneficial to the Society. Both the North and South Stations 
could then be reached more readily and, conversely, easier access 
provided to Horticultural Hall. 



74 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

Early in the year the death of General Francis H. Appleton 
was announced. General Appleton was President of the Society 
from 1896 to 1900 and a Trustee for many years more. He was 
very active in the effort to obtain a new building for the Society, 
then occupying the Hall on Tremont Street. 

In 1900, with the new structure under way, O. B. Hadwen, 
President of the Worcester County Horticultural Society, was 
also elected President of this Society, but General Appleton was 
requested to remain as Chairman of the Building Committee 
until the new Hall had been completed. His portrait hangs in the 
President's Gallery. 

The increase in membership fees raised the income from that 
source to $17,633.50 as against $15,963 the previous year, al- 
though the total membership was smaller. The increase from in- 
vestments increased more than one thousand dollars and Horti- 
culture contributed $1,090.99 from earnings. Yet the year ended 
with a deficit of $2,961.62, partly because of necessary repairs 
and other increased building expenses. 



1940— A SUCCESSFUL SPRING SHOW 
BRINGS CLEARER SKIES 

THE financial skies grew clearer in 1940 in spite of deteri- 
orating business conditions. The Spring Show drew an 
increasing number of visitors, with a consequent profit of 
$24,085.30. The income from investments showed a marked in- 
crease, due largely to the sagacity of the treasurer, John S. Ames, 
and the amount received from membership fees continued to 
increase, not withstanding that the membership itself was still 
tending downward. The explanation of the last item was to be 
found, of course, in the increase of one dollar in annual dues. If 
we may be permitted to look ahead to the end of the year, we 
will find the Treasurer's books revealing an excess of $6,339.50 
in income over expenditure, in spite of a $792 loss by Horticulture 
and a falling off in the receipts from Mount Auburn Cemetery 
to only $935. The check from the last named source was to be 
the smallest in half a century. This could not be explained by 
a lower death rate, however, for the income from the sale of 
lots was to be much greater the next year. At this time the 
cemetery fund had grown to $55,053.52, all the result of the 
agreement made when the Society and Mount Auburn Cemetery 
dissolved partnership. 

The Spring Show had such an important part in the Society's 
activities that it should be considered at once, only mentioning 
that it was preceded by a small but interesting Camellia Show 
in January. Much of the Spring Show's success was due to the 
co-operation of the Massachusetts Nurserymen's Association, 
which sponsored many of the exhibits in Grand Hall. Ray M. 
Koon pointed out this fact in his report as Chairman of the Ex- 
hibition Committee. He also paid tribute to Mrs. S. V. R. Crosby 
and Will C. Curtis, who combined their resources in staging a 
remarkable Nature Trail, and to the Waltham Field Station for a 



76 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

soilless culture exhibit which, as an educational feature, aroused 
much favorable comment. The garden clubs were very active, set- 
ting up a beautiful rose garden and many flower arrangements. 

The Nature Trail received the Bulkley Medal of the Garden 
Club of America, while an elaborate rock garden won the Gold 
Medal of American Rock Garden Society for Ormond Hamilton. 
The President's Cup went to William T. Walke & Sons for a 
group of amaryllis, with plants which have seldom been sur- 
passed. The Gold Medal of the Horticultural Society of New 
York was given to the garden clubs for their rose garden, with 
Mrs. William Stuart Forbes receiving credit as its designer. 

Mrs. Galen Stone had again sent in the wonderful acacias 
grown in her greenhouse at Marion. As the Roland acacias had 
been sold by that time, Mrs. Stone had the most important col- 
lection in New England. They received the Gold Medal of the 
Pennsylvania Horticultural Society. A popularity contest at this 
Show, decided by the votes of visitors, indicated that the public 
found particular pleasure in a bog garden arranged by Harlan P. 
Kelsey, Inc. The attendance at the Show was 94,487. 

It appeared at the end of the year, when the award was an- 
nounced, that the Albert C. Burrage Gold Vase had again been 
bestowed upon an exhibit at one of the smaller Shows, rather 
than at the Spring Exhibition. The winner in this year of 1940, 
the Cherry Hill Nurseries, received this much coveted award for 
a comprehensive exhibit of peonies, azaleas and rhododendrons 
at the June Show. It is doubtful if the Society has ever had a 
more consistent exhibitor or a warmer supporter than this firm, 
without which the June Shows would have had little appeal over 
a long term of years. It was a matter of regret to find the name 
of the affable David C. Stranger, long an active member of this 
concern, in the necrology list for 1939. 

The name Harvest Show had been adopted for the exhibition 
formerly known as the Fruit and Vegetable Show, as more fitting, 
considering the nature of the displays. A cornucopia exhibit of the 
Massachusetts State College was a feature in 1940. 

The Autumn Show was not as original in design as some of 
those which had preceded it, but brought a very heavy outpouring 
of chrysanthemums, including cascades. It is worth mentioning, 



A SUCCESSFUL SHOW BRINGS CLEAR SKIES 77 

perhaps, that the yellow form of this very attractive type had 
its origin in the greenhouses of Edwin S. Webster, where Peter 
Arnott was in charge. It carried the name of Jane Hart and that 
variety is still the one most often grown. The trailing habit of 
this chrysanthemum made it highly popular with exhibitors and 
it was soon used extensively in New York as well as in Boston. 
The Autumn Show had a loss of slightly over one thousand dol- 
lars, but the fact had become rather generally accepted that 
this Show must be a contribution to the public pleasure just as 
much as the Summer Shows. 

It is a matter of note that the Year Book for 1940 was the last 
one in which the name of Marian Roby Case appears as Chair- 
man of the Committee on the Exhibition of the Products of Chil- 
dren's Gardens, from which it had not been missing since 1925. 
Miss Case, who was intensely interested in work with children, 
had made a record as Chairman of this important committee 
almost without parallel in the history of the Society. Not only 
had she given many hours each year to the planning of the ex- 
hibitions, but she had repeatedly offered generous prizes at the 
Shows besides donating a large number of bronze medals as 
awards for children's gardens. She often expressed surprise, as 
had many other persons, that so few parents came to see the 
exhibits made by their children, and, for that matter, that few of 
the Trustees took the time to attend. 

The 4-H Clubs began exhibiting at the Children's Show while 
Miss Case was serving as committee Chairman, taking over the 
Lecture Hall and adding greatly to the extent of the Shows. A 
judging contest was also inaugurated, bringing as many as fifty 
contestants from many parts of the state. 

Miss Case had mentioned in her report for 1938 that children 
had made their first exhibit at Horticultural Hall just fifty years 
previous in the form of a window garden. It was a long cry from 
that humble beginning to an exhibition that filled three halls. The 
most rapid growth had come in recent years and Miss Case was 
to be credited with much of the momentum which it had acquired. 
Samuel J. Goddard succeeded her as committee Chairman. 

The Committee on Gardens made only one Medal award in 
1940. That was the award of the H. H. Hunnewell Medal to 



78 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

Mr. and Mrs. Clement S. Houghton for a charming estate in 
Chestnut Hill which had become widely known for its rock gar- 
dens, its rhododendrons and its wild flower plantings. The Com- 
mittee then introduced an innovation by recommending that 
scrolls be awarded communities, schools, institutions or com- 
mercial establishments which had used planting material so as to 
enhance the beauty of their surroundings, and to encourage similar 
activities. It was the suggestion of Harold S. Ross that this devi- 
ation from the usual custom be tried and the Trustees agreed. 
So we find a Scroll being given the Commonwealth of Massachu- 
setts in recognition of public service, through the Department of 
Public Works of the Commonwealth, in the design and planting 
on the Worcester Turnpike in the Town of Northborough; 

For the sagacious relation of intersecting highways and their junctures 
with a steep hillside; 

For straightforward simplicity of mass form well suited to modern 
conditions and for observation from rapidly moving vehicles; 

For freedom from intricacy and pretentiousness in the selection and 
planting of indigenous groundcovers on the hillside; 

By which means public highways are made both useful and sightly. 

We find the presentation of a Scroll to the City of Boston 
taking the form of a simple ceremony at City Hall, with the Presi- 
dent of the Society, Mr. Webster, making a brief speech as he 
hands the Scroll to the then mayor, Maurice J. Tobin. Later the 
Scroll was to be found on the wall in the office of the then super- 
intendent of parks, William T. Long. This Scroll carried the 
following inscription : 

For the wisdom shown by the City's duly constituted authorities 
more than a century ago in approving and encouraging the under- 
taking to set apart land as a Public Garden; 

By later acquiring the Public Garden for the City, to make it the 
keystone connecting the Common and the old city with Commonwealth 
Avenue and the new city; 

By maintaining its design and planting in conformity with its original 
purpose; 

By the wise judgment with which alterations have been made with- 
out injury but rather to enhance the Garden's charm; 



A SUCCESSFUL SHOW BRINGS CLEAR SKIES 79 

By continued capable maintenance, which has ever increased the 
beauty of the trees, shrubs and flowers to the end of extending their 
use to the pleasure of the citizens; 

By all of which means the amenities and good name of the City of 
Boston have been nourished. 

A Scroll awarded to the Town of Winchester was presented 
by William T. Ellery, then Chairman of the Committee on Gar- 
dens, at a largely attended public meeting. This Scroll carried the 
following wording: 

In recognition of the excellent judgment and rare good taste made 
manifest by the town's officials in the planning and planting of its 
public parks and in the beautification of its highways. 

In recognition also of the intelligent use of trees, shrubs and other 
suitable material on the part of the town's home owners in such a way 
as to harmonize with the efforts of those in authority to make Win- 
chester what it has in fact become, outstanding among the Common- 
wealth's many beautiful communities. 

A fourth Scroll went to the City of Everett in recognition of 
the skillful planning and planting of the Albert N. Parlin Junior 
High School. 

Sir Arthur William Hill, Director of Kew Gardens, was 
awarded the George Robert White Medal in 1940. Sir Arthur 
had occupied his position as Director since 1922 and had done 
much to influence horticulture in Great Britain. 

The award of the Thomas Roland Medal to George H. Pring 
of the Missouri Botanical Garden was in recognition of his im- 
portant work in the study and hybridization of aquatic plants as 
well as his general horticultural knowledge. 

Being a very modest man, G. G. Nearing of Ridgewood, N. J. 
had done much important work with woody plants, particularly 
rhododendrons, before the full extent of his accomplishments was 
realized. He was awarded the Jackson Dawson Memorial Medal, 
an award which Mr. Dawson would surely have approved. 

William A. Dayton of the United States Department of Agri- 
culture, the recipient of the Society's Gold Medal in 1940, had 
devoted himself particularly to forestry but had been active in 



80 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

other fields and was Vice President of the Washington Academy 
of Sciences. He represented the Department of Agriculture on 
the editorial committee of "Standardized Plant Names." 

Other Gold Medals were awarded in 1940 as follows: 

To F. A. Bartlett of Stamford, Conn., widely known for his 
scientific work in the study of tree diseases. He founded the 
Bartlett Tree Expert Company, the Bartlett School of Tree Surgery 
and the Bartlett Tree Research Laboratory and was one of the 
founders of the National Shade Tree Conference. 

To Alpheus T. De La Mare as one of the outstanding figures 
in the field of trade publications, a man who had done much for 
the advancement of horticulture through his paper, the Florist 7 s 
Exchange, and by means of the books he published. 

To Arthur Herrington, who had distinguished himself as the 
manager of the New York Flower Show over a long period. 

The annual meeting in 1940 was presided over by William 
Ellery, Vice President, in the absence of Mr. Webster. The Presi- 
dent sent a letter, however, in which he discussed the possibility 
of connecting Horticultural Hall and Symphony Hall by an 
underground passageway, utilizing the subway entrance. Later 
this plan received very favorable consideration, especially from 
the Committee on Exhibitions, but the Trustees of the transit 
system promptly vetoed it. The idea of connecting the Hall 
with the subway was then abandoned. 

Mr. Methven, continuing Chairman of the Prize Committee, 
reported another progressive step, the practice of sending the 
reports of the meetings of both the Prize and Exhibition commit- 
tees to all the members of each committee. This was in line with 
an effort to provide complete accord between these two important 
committees. 

Mrs. John Gardner Coolidge became a Trustee at this meet- 
ing, and was promptly made a member of the Committee on 
Lectures and Publications. This was the committee responsible 
for the Year Book, from which it was voted to omit the list of 
new members in 1940 in the interest of economy. The Year Book 
contained, however, a detailed account of the operations of each 
department in Horticultural Hall, as they were carried on at 
that time. Much surprise was expressed, it appears, at the extent 



A SUCCESSFUL SHOW BRINGS CLEAR SKIES 81 

of these operations, especially by members who never had visited 
Horticultural Hall, including some hundreds who lived in distant 
states. 

The Society was active in 1940 in efforts to combat the spread 
of the Japanese beetle, which had begun to invade New England, 
and to aid in the control of the elm leaf beetle. It issued a 
bulletin about the Japanese beetle and its locations at that time. 



1 94 1— THE CALM BEFORE THE STORM 

IN HIS address at the annual meeting in 1941 President 
Webster spoke of the serenity and reasonable prosperity 
which prevailed at that time. He was a business man, how- 
ever, and could see trouble ahead. There would be greatly in- 
creased taxes, he forecast, with a consequent decrease in spending 
which might seriously affect the Society. It was his belief, never- 
theless, that there should be no abatement in the Society's ac- 
tivities, but, on the contrary, increased efforts by each depart- 
ment to be of greater service. To emphasize his meaning he said 
that such activities were being kept alive across the water, even 
under stress of war and with bombs dealing daily destruction. 
Then he read the following cablegram: 

The Council and Fellows of the Royal Horticultural Society, gath- 
ered in London for their annual meeting and their first Flower Show 
of the season, send affectionate thanks to their fellow gardeners in 
America for all the sympathy, encouragement and assistance that they 
have freely expressed and offered. 

(Signed) Aberconway. 

The contented feeling which seemed to exist, despite the 
rumblings of a distant conflict, found expression at the Spring 
Flower Show, to which people flocked in great numbers and 
which earned a net profit of $37,238.42. This was highly gratify- 
ing, inasmuch as the annual budget at that date called for a 
profit of only $20,000. The actual attendance, somewhat less than 
the newspapers announced, was 108,000, but this was the largest 
gate since the Centennial Exhibition in 1929. The winding walks, 
an innovation in 1940, added much to the effect, and the Show 
Manager, Mr. Nehrling, received many compliments for the 
expert way in which the great crowds were handled. 

The stage at this Show was occupied by Mrs. Galen Stone's 
magnificent acacias, the value of which as show material has 




Arno H. Nekrling, Who Became Executive Secretary in 1947 



THE CALM BEFORE THE STORM 83 

already been noted. It was no surprise that this exhibit won 
the Society's Gold Medal and the Medal of the Pennsylvania 
Horticultural Society and that at the end of the year it received 
the Albert C. Burrage Gold Vase as the most outstanding exhibit 
at any of the season's exhibitions. 

A formal rose garden set up for Mr. and Mrs. Francis B. 
Crowninshield by their capable superintendent Thomas Murray 
was awarded the President's Cup. Harlan P. Kelsey, Inc. won the 
Society's Gold Medal and the medal of the Horticultural Society 
of New York, in addition to the trophy of the Department of 
Agriculture, for a well-staged naturalistic garden. 

Wilfrid Wheeler, who had become much interested in the grow- 
ing of hollies on Cape Cod, had an outstanding exhibit illustrating 
the conservation of holly trees which won him the Bronze Medal 
of the New England Wild Flower Preservation Society. 

It developed after this Show that the charitable person who 
for several years had been buying a handful of tickets for under- 
privileged persons, in order that they might see the great exhibi- 
tions and thereby gain new hope and courage, was Mrs. Geoffrey 
Whitney, whose benefactions were made through the Benevolent 
Fraternity Fruit and Flower Mission. 

Another sidelight on the Show was a procession of little ex- 
press wagons in which sod was being removed from the Breck 
exhibit at the end of the week for use in the backyard gardens 
sponsored by the Boston Tuberculosis Association. 

The Chrysanthemum Show in November assumed unusual im- 
portance as it was combined with the fortieth show of the Chrys- 
anthemum Society of America and brought many visitors from 
distant states. Because of these factors the cost of the Show was 
reduced to $999.63. The committee rooms in the Hall were 
opened to the Chrysanthemum Society for various meetings. 

In the course of 1941 the final group of books bequeathed the 
Society by Albert C. Burrage, were passed on to the Library 
by Mrs. Burrage. Among the 2,300 volumes were some rare and 
important items. Besides the books there was an excellent collec- 
tion of water color drawings of orchids. 

The book collection had been increased by 536 volumes apart 
from those in the Burrage collection. This gave a total of 26,913 



84 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

volumes on the shelves. Among the additions was Elwes' and 
Henry's "Trees of Great Britain and Ireland," on which the 
Society bid successfully at a Red Cross benefit sale in London 
by the Royal Horticultural Society. 

The Library Committee was delighted in the course of the 
year to receive a large deerskin from Mr. Webster for use in the 
binding of important books. Similar gifts had been made twice 
before, and were to be continued for many years. 

Special efforts were made through the year 1941 to put Horti- 
cultural Hall in the best possible physical condition in anticipa- 
tion of probable shortages. Two important improvements were 
made, as well. One, long needed, was the installation of a com- 
bined freight and passenger elevator to replace the old-fashioned 
hand hoist which had been in operation for forty years. Work 
on this elevator was hurried as fast as conditions permitted be- 
cause of the growing belief that circumstances might require hold- 
ing the Spring Shows in Horticultural Hall. 

The second improvement was a change in the electric service, 
alternating current being substituted for the direct current sys- 
tem which had long been the only system available but had 
several disadvantages. The new system had come into the neigh- 
borhood only after months of pressure exerted by this Society 
and those in charge of Symphony Hall. Direct current still came 
into the building, however, for use in operating the No. 1 elevator, 
inasmuch as any change in the powering of this elevator would 
have meant installing a new motor at heavy cost. 

The opening of classes in flower arrangement for women liv- 
ing in city apartments aroused much interest and brought favor- 
able comments from many parts of the country. Mrs. Arthur P. 
Teele conducted these classes, which were largely attended. It was 
pleasing to observe the eager interest of women learning how to 
decorate their homes with flowers. 

By the end of the year the Herb Society of America, with 
headquarters in Horticultural Hall, had undertaken the task of 
disseminating exact information about the growing of herbs 
commercially, so that people might be deterred from embarking 
on a venture sure to fail. 

The Society suffered a severe loss in April of 1941 in the death 



THE CALM BEFORE THE STORM 85 

of Mrs. Bayard Thayer, who had been a life member since 1900 
and was the first woman to be elected to the Board of Trustees. 
She was a member of the Garden Committee for seven years, 
much of the time as Chairman, a member of the Executive Com- 
mittee for eight years and a member of the Library Committee 
for nine years. In 1925 she offered $250 in prizes for the cultiva- 
tion of wild flowers and in 1929 gave the Society an automatic 
slide lantern. Many exhibits had come from Mrs. Thayer's beauti- 
ful estate in Lancaster through the years and the broad-spreading 
yew, Taxis cuspidata Thyerae was originated there through the 
work of her superintendent William Anderson. Mrs. Thayer 
had resigned from the Board in 1940 because of advanced age 
and had been made an Honorary Trustee. 

A popular professor emeritus at what was then the Massa- 
chusetts State College, Frank A. Waugh, was awarded the George 
Robert White Medal of Honor in 1941. Professor Waugh taught 
landscape gardening at the Massachusetts State College for forty 
years, having been called there from the University of Vermont. 
His work in systematic pomology opened an entirely new field 
in this branch of science. 

The Jackson Dawson Memorial Medal went to a man who had 
distinguished himself in many lines of horticultural endeavor, 
Frederick Huber Howard. Although he had worked with many 
flowers, this Californian was best known for his rose creations, 
especially the Los Angeles rose, which had helped to spread the 
fame of his native city. 

C. J. Van Bourgondien, recipient of the Thomas Roland Medal, 
was a Hollander, as his name indicated, born at Hillegom in the 
heart of the bulb growing district. He traveled widely selling 
bulbs and finally settled in this country with a business of his 
own. 

Three Gold Medals were awarded on recommendation of the 
Committee on Special Medals, with Harold S. Ross as Chairman. 
One went to John S. Ames, who had been active in several fields 
of horticulture for many years. He was one of the trusted advisers 
of Dr. Charles S. Sargent, head of the Arnold Arboretum, and it 
was largely through his generosity that the now famous Harvard 
Forest in Petersham was made possible. 



86 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

A second Gold Medal was awarded Henry Hicks, whose name 
was familiar to all persons with a love of trees. Mr. Hicks, a 
nurseryman on Long Island, had a special fondness for ever- 
greens and his name will be perpetuated by the popular Taxus 
media Hicksi. 

Blueberries had brought fame to Miss Elizabeth White of 
Whitesbog, N. J. when the Society's Gold Medal was awarded 
to her. She lived in a section where blueberries and cranberries 
had been harvested long before Columbus discovered America. 
In 191 1 Miss White and her father began co-operating with Dr. 
Frederick V. Colville of the U. S. Department of Agriculture 
to improve blueberries through cultivation, and she continued 
to give her attention to this subject for many years, becoming 
largely responsible for what is now an important industry. More 
recently she assisted in the improvement of the American holly. 

The H. H. Hunnewell Medal for an estate of three acres or 
more was not awarded in 1941. Also, the Committee on Gardens 
made a point of economy because of the President's warnings; 
it recommended only one Gold Medal award, the recipient being 
Mrs. C. D. Armstrong for a large formal garden on her estate 
at Osterville. This was a very attractive place, with beautiful 
planting and several handsome specimens of box. The Society's 
Silver Medal was given Charles O. Dexter for the excellent 
manner in which his place in Sandwich had been laid out and 
planted. 

A Silver Medal was awarded also to Mrs. Charles G. Weld 
for a charming Spring garden, at her home in Brookline. 

The well kept lawn, trees and shrubs and the border plantings 
in the park facing the church structure of the First Church of 
Christ, Scientist, adjacent to Horticultural Hall, won a Scroll for 
the church organization. 

Delphiniums of unusual size and excellence grown at the home 
of L. G. Bruggermann in Hingham obtained a Certificate of 
Culture for that gentleman. Mr. Bruggermann had also been com- 
mended for his success in growing chrysanthemums under shade. 

Professor Oakes Ames resigned as a member of the Board in 
1 94 1 and was promptly made an Honorary Trustee. Charles K. 



THE CALM BEFORE THE STORM 87 

Cummings was elected a Vice-President and Aubrey B. Butler 
of Northampton was made a Trustee. 

Horticulture had to face a loss of $645.84, due to increased costs, 
even though the advertising revenue had increased. Building ex- 
penses had gone up by seven thousand dollars and investments 
were down. Yet the treasurer's report was to show an over-all profit 
of $7,011.78, because of the financial success of the Spring 
Show. 

All in all, the Trustees were fairly well satisfied with the situa- 
tion as they entered the closing month. Then, on December 7, 
the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor and the year which Mr. 
Webster had mentioned as one of serenity when it began was to 
end with the United States precipitated into World War Two. 
This brought repercussions which the Massachusetts Horticul- 
tural Society, like similar organizations, could not escape. What 
some of them were would soon become apparent. 



1942— THE SOCIETY TURNS TO WAR WORK 

WHEN the full import of the Pearl Harbor tragedy 
became realized a complete reshaping of the activities 
at Horticultural Hall was started. In the Library, the 
magazine department and the information bureau the emphasis 
was transferred from ornamental plants to food crops. Not, of 
course, that the encouragement of flower growing and the making 
of ornamental gardens was abandoned. The lesson to be learned 
from the Royal Horticultural Society, which continued to hold 
Flower Shows even while a hail of lead was falling on the city 
of London, was too clear for that. 

The federal government was asking for immediate help, how- 
ever, in persuading people all over the country to do their part in 
avoiding what might be a serious food shortage. An emergency 
board set up in Washington made a specific request to this Society 
for assistance and the Secretary began making trips to the 
capital city for consultation and information. 

Several state-wide conferences were held at Horticultural Hall 
and soon a State Committee began holding regular meetings in 
the Trustee's room. A radio program inaugurated the previous 
year took on new importance and several newspaper releases 
were sent out, although official sources took over such work 
before many months had passed. 

As the season progressed and the need of continuing effort 
seemed apparent, an efficient city-wide gardening program was 
established under the direction of Maurice Tobin, then Mayor 
of the city. Arno H. Nehrling, the Society's Director of Exhibi- 
tions, was made Secretary of a committee, of which Ernest 
Hoftyzer, later a Trustee of the Society, was one of the most 
energetic members. As a result of this Committee's help and en- 
couragement hundreds of gardens were made in backyards and 
on vacant lots. A large section in the Fenway was set aside for 



THE SOCIETY TURNS TO WAR WORK 89 

the use of men and women who had no land and the practical 
value of this action was to be seen long after the war, for this 
piece of land was to be continued in cultivation, with the garden- 
ers organized into an enthusiastic group. 

With the outbreak of the war it became necessary to provide 
for blackouts, which was done by installing blackout curtains in 
the Lecture Hall and the small Exhibition Hall. Actually these 
curtains served a double purpose, making the halls more satis- 
factory for the showing of stereopticon and and motion pictures in 
daylight hours. A large flag was hung in the large Exhibition Hall 
and a smaller flag in the lobby to help promote a patriotic spirit. 

Efforts had been made for several years to devise a way to 
make the entrance more prominent. Mr. Webster had suggested 
a canopy similar to the one at Symphony Hall, as has been noted, 
but the Trustees had taken no action to implement this sugges- 
tion. Now, however, a less expensive plan was agreed upon and 
soon the words "Horticultural Hall" had been cut into the stones 
over the center door. In addition metal frames were installed at 
each side of this door with inserts giving the name of the build- 
ing, the date on which it was erected and such other information 
as might be helpful at the moment. And, of course, an invitation 
to visit the Library and the offices. This solution of a long-time 
problem served a very useful purpose by answering some of the 
questions on the lips of visitors to the city who might be curious 
as to the name and purpose of so handsome a building. 

Plans for the Spring Show had been made before the outbreak 
of war, with commitments to those in charge of Mechanics 
Building. It would have been very difficult to make changes 
when the Show date was only about three months ahead. Never- 
theless, it was not without trepidation that the Show was opened 
on March 16, although there was in the end little cause for 
worry. It is true that the attendance and the financial receipts 
were to be off about twenty per cent, but so they were at the 
other large shows, and after all there was a profit of $17,376.88, 
an amount to be welcomed in a year bringing many extraordinary 
expenses. 

As a Show the 1942 exhibition ranked very high. Indeed, 
President Webster said of it, "This year's Show was one of the 



90 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

most outstanding exhibitions ever staged by the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society and one that reflects credit on all those who 
had a part in putting it on." For one thing, the Show was un- 
usually large, the basement having been taken over for a magnif- 
icent spectacle set up by Harlan P. Kelsey, Inc., of East Boxford, 
featuring the famous mountains of North Carolina, where native 
plants are to be found in greater variety than anywhere else in 
the United States. This exhibit received both the Society's Gold 
Medal and the trophy of the Massachusetts Department of Agri- 
culture. 

A garden set up by Mr. and Mrs. M. M. Van Beuren of 
Newport, R. I. aroused a great amount of interest at this Show 
because it brought together a greater number of lilies than had ever 
before been assembled at any exhibition in America. It received 
the Society's Gold Medal and the Bulkley Medal of the Garden 
Club of America and then, at the end of the year, was awarded 
the Albert C. Burrage Gold Vase as the most outstanding exhibit 
at any of the Shows held in 1942. 

The President's Cup was won by William T. Walke & Sons, 
Inc. for a southern garden. The Walkes, who grew amaryllis 
plants superlatively well, also won the Gold Medal of the Horti- 
cultural Society of New York. The Gold Medal of the Pennsyl- 
vania Society went to Edwin S. Webster for a superb group of 
orchids. 

At the annual meeting in May Mr. Webster devoted much of 
his address to a discussion of the Society's war-time activities. He 
pointed out that all the departments were expected to co-operate 
in every way possible with the federal, state and local authorities 
in their efforts in behalf of food production, canning and other 
nutritional projects. 

Mr. Webster was highly pleased with the results of the Spring 
Show, as has been noted, but nevertheless he recommended that 
the 1943 Exhibition be held in Horticultural Hall, a recommenda- 
tion which was to be adopted as a matter of course. He felt that 
the other Shows should be held as usual, believing that the public 
would welcome them even in time of war, as proved to be a 
fact. 

While dealing with the Shows notice must be taken of the re- 



THE SOCIETY TURNS TO WAR WORK 91 

port presented at the annual meeting by the Chairman of the 
Committee on Exhibitions, Ray M. Koon. Toward the end of 
his report Mr. Koon said: 

"To ask a team of judges to render a verdict in a few minutes 
on an Exhibit that has taken months to create is a large order. 
That creditable results, as a rule, are achieved by the Prize Com- 
mittee and their judges in awarding prizes under such unfamiliar 
circumstances is a wonder ! The system is obviously fraught with 
hazard and should be modified to prevent the possibility of serious 
errors occurring in the future." 

Then Mr. Koon made this statement: 

"Some device must be set up whereby an Executive Committee, 
possibly designated by the President, will meet at stated times 
during all Shows to hear and act on protests. This is very im- 
portant and we should not go into another year unprepared in this 
respect." 

This was the first time that differences between the Exhibition 
and Prize Committees had been voiced publicly, although the 
Prize Committee had sometimes expressed a wish to be consulted 
when the schedules were being made up. However, it may have 
been wise to clear the air, for the report of the Chairman of the 
Exhibition Committee in 1943 was to disclose adjustments which 
did much to improve the situation described by Mr. Koon, as will 
be noted. 

Because of the developing interest in lilies a Lily Show was 
added to the list of exhibitions in 1942 and was so well received 
that a similar Show was planned for the next year. Records of 
attendance were broken at both the Harvest and the Children's 
Shows. The victory garden movement had resulted in more home 
gardens being cultivated than at any time since the first world 
war. Daniel W. O'Brien of the Children's Garden Committee 
called the 1942 Show the best ever held in this country, ranking 
well with many of the best adult exhibitions. The extent of this 
Show is revealed by the fact that the 1,298 individual entries 
marked an increase of 507 over those of the preceding year. 

A bulletin dealing with poison ivy, which had become such a 
serious pest as to interfere with the making of new gardens, was 
circulated throughout the country. A new bulletin on ragweed 



92 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

eradication was also well received. Both were writeen by George 
Graves of the editorial staff. Dr. Kendall's bulletin on grape 
cultivation was revised and reprinted. 

All libraries reported a drop in circulation and the one at 
Horticultural Hall was no exception. Yet there was an increase 
in the number of books mailed out, in spite of higher book rates 
put into effect by the postoffice department. Soon after the war 
started, libraries in all the coastal states began putting their treas- 
ures in safe storage and the Library Committee of this Society 
investigated several possible hideouts. It finally was decided, how- 
ever, that no safer place could be found than Horticultural Hall 
itself. The room over the kitchen which had been fitted up as a 
Library annex was considered well protected and the Society's 
most valuable books were stored there. 

Two members of the Library staff resigned to work for the 
federal government and their places were not filled. This made 
it necessary to cease work on the recataloguing project. The 
Library shelves were found to have a considerable number of 
duplicates, especially in the orchid collection. With the permission 
of the Trustees enough books were sold through the bulletin of 
the American Orchid Society to bring in $2,352.49. 

The sale of books sponsored by the Society had continued good 
and one of them, "The Gardener's Almanac," had become the 
Society's exclusive property. It was to go through many editions 
and was distributed for a time through the Oxford University 
Press. The large edition of "The Gardener's Omnibus" originally 
printed had been exhausted and the book was not reprinted 
because of the war-time restrictions on paper and the large ex- 
pense that would be involved. 

The Society's magazine had some difficult problems to meet, 
due to the falling off of membership in the three societies — the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society, the Pennsylvania Horticul- 
tural Society and the Horticultural Society of New York. There 
was a shrinkage in advertising revenue, too, as many advertisers 
had not been able to continue in business. 

Jens Jensen of Ellison Bay, Wisconsin, was awarded the George 
Robert White Medal of Honor in 1942. The dean of American 
landscape architects, he had done much notable work throughout 



THE SOCIETY TURNS TO WAR WORK 93 

the country, but his name was linked most closely with the great 
West Park System of Chicago. 

Vincent R. dePetris of Grosse Farms, Michigan, long a prom- 
inent florist, had been winning new laurels by his work in devel- 
oping improved hardy chrysanthemums. He was awarded the 
Thomas Roland Medal. 

Henry T. Skinner, curator of the Morris Arboretum at Chest- 
nut Hill, Pa. was perhaps the youngest man to win the Jackson 
Dawson Memorial Medal, but his excellent work as a propagator 
at Wisley in England, at the Arnold Arboretum and at Cornell 
University before being called to Pennsylvania was considered 
to make him fully entitled to this honor. 

Original research in vegetable growing, the preparation of 
much valuable data on the cultivation of vegetables and the plan 
for successive crops worked out in his garden in Ipswich won 
the Society's Gold Medal for Albert C. Burrage, Jr., who was to 
write a bulletin later to be circulated by the Society, and finally a 
book. 

The Society's Gold Medal was awarded Edward I. Farrington, 
Secretary and the Editor of Horticulture, for "long and distin- 
guished service." 

Mrs. William A. Parker received the top award of the Garden 
Committee, the H. H. Hunnewell Medal, for her estate in North 
Easton, described "as having old world appearance and charm 
while up to the minute in details of planting and comfort." A 
Gold Medal went to Mrs. Charles E. Riley of Cotuit, "for the 
perfect maintenance of horticultural objects." If this citation 
seemed ambiguous it was explained in a statement that this was 
an old place in which planting done many years before had been 
preserved in remarkably good condition, with a valley garden and 
a pool having real Victorian charm. 

The Berkshire Garden Center in Stockbridge won a Gold 
Medal for "an excellent educational exhibit, its co-operation with 
the gardening public, for its example in stimulating the trial and 
use of new materials and the understanding utilization of a diffi- 
cult natural terrain." 

A Blue Ribbon Certificate was awarded the City of Quincy for 
its excellent maintenance of a traffic circle in the heart of an in- 



94 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

dustrial center at the Quincy end of the Fore River bridge. This 
work was done under the direction of Andrew W. Stewart. 

It was voted by the Board of Trustees in 1942 to establish a 
list of "Honorary Members," this list to appear in the Year 
Book. Each person awarded the Society's Gold Medal by the 
Trustees on the recommendation of the Committee on Special 
Medals, or by a vote originating in the Board itself was to have 
a place in this list, beginning with 1942. 

Dunbar Lockwood was elected a Trustee in 1942, suc- 
ceeding Miss Marian Roby Case, who had declined reelection. 
Miss Case, who had become a member of the Society in 
1920, was made a Trustee in 1925, having been the second 
woman elected to the Board. Miss Case had been a very active 
and very useful member of the Board throughout her term of 
office. She had been responsible in large measure for the decision 
of the Society to purchase the magazine Horticulture, as noted in 
Mr. Benson's History. She had done more than any other person 
to develop and expand the Exhibition of the Products of Chil- 
dren's Gardens, donating a large number of medals each year. 
She had set up excellent exhibits at some of the Autumn Shows 
and had responded freely when called upon for assistance by 
the Fruit and Flower Mission. She was at once made an Honorary 
Trustee. 

Boston's Autumn Flower Show in 1942, at which no admission 
fee was charged, was in the nature of a tribute to China. The 
leading exhibit was made up of spider chrysanthemums in great 
variety grouped around a magnificent Chinese goddess loaned by 
the Museum of Fine Arts. The chrysanthemums were grown and 
arranged by Mrs. Edward Forbes and the exhibit was designed 
by Mrs. Irving Wright. Several Chinese women appeared in 
costume at this show and two of them were photographed in the 
President's Gallery standing beside a large Chinese jar, the pic- 
ture being reproduced in the Year Book. 

As 1942 came to a close the Trustees felt that the first year of 
war-time stress had been met valiantly and well, even though 
the expenditures had exceeded the income by $4,796.17. Much 
had been accomplished and yet there had been sufficient econ- 
omies to reduce the building's expenses by more than $4,000 and 



THE SOCIETY TURNS TO WAR WORK 95 

the office expenses by more than $5,000. The income from invest- 
ments had increased a little and fortunately a substantial amount 
($2,330) had been received from Mt. Auburn Cemetery. On the 
other hand, membership fees had yielded less than in the pre- 
vious year and Horticulture had had a heavy loss, $3,237.16. 

A bonus amounting to $390 had been paid the employes in the 
place of the increase in salaries and wages for which they had 
hoped, and blackout expenses of $684.08 had been incurred. 
The bonus and blackout items, as well as the catalogue expense 
of $750, were charged to the earned surplus account. 



1943— AMERICA'S ONLY IMPORTANT 
SPRING SHOW 

THIS Society had the unique distinction in 1943 of produc- 
ing the only important Spring Flower Show anywhere in 
the United States. It was a Show which absorbed much 
of the attention of all departments in the early months of the 
year, for it was to be held in Horticultural Hall instead of 
Mechanics Building, which had been taken over by war-time 
activities. It was to be put on, too, with some measure of appre- 
hension as to how it would be received in time of war. When it 
had come to a close, however, the letters of commendation and 
congratulation received from many sources, locally and at a 
distance, indicated almost unanimous approval. 

It was inevitable that many difficult problems should be pre- 
sented, for the Exhibition had to be planned for conditions 
entirely different from those found in Mechanics Building. For 
one thing, it had to be reduced in size at least fifty per cent and 
yet it had to be attractive and spectacular enough to maintain 
the Society's prestige in this field. It was expected that the at- 
tendance would be about half the average of former years, but 
if 50,000 people were to pass through the building in six days 
there must be wide aisles and no bottlenecks. The manner in 
which Mr. Nehrling, working with the Exhibition Committee, 
met and solved these problems elicited the warmest praise. In 
brief it was an excellent Show and the actual attendance was 
57,000, a greater number of people than had ever before been 
inside Horticultural Hall in a single week. The greatly enlarged 
area on the mezzanine floor gave excellent space for the garden 
clubs, being made possible because the partitions separating the 
offices were portable. All of them were removed, and of course 
the organizations occupying the offices were forced to suspend 



AMERICA'S ONLY IMPORTANT SPRING SHOW 97 

their activities for the time being. This they did in the most 
cooperative spirit. 

There were exhibits even in the Library and at the rear of 
the building on the office floor. They were made possible by the 
newly-installed elevator, which was in constant use. The city 
had insisted that emergency lights be placed on all floors before 
the Show could be opened and that an exit from the Library by 
way of the adjoining roof be provided. 

Those who were privileged to see this Show will remember 
some of the outstanding exhibits, especially the exhibit of orchids 
which won the President's Cup for L. Sherman Adams and which 
many experts declared to be the best display of orchids ever 
made in America. The New York Medal Certificate was awarded 
Alexander I. Heimlich for a rock garden and waterfall and the 
Pennsylvania Gold Medal Certificate to Albert A. Hulley for a 
rose garden. Will C. Curtis received the Bulkley Medal in bronze 
awarded by the Garden Club of America for an educational col- 
lection of rare and unusual plants gathered from all parts of the 
country. The award for the best commercial exhibit went to 
Ernest Borowski for an azalea garden. 

A Georgian dining room was staged by the Garden Club 
Federation under the direction of Mrs. Harold Plimpton, and 
plant windows planned by Mrs. Irving C. Wright attracted much 
attention. Victory garden information was given to thousands 
of persons at a booth in the Library conducted by the State 
College. In the course of the week requests for literature num- 
bered 10,570. 

Following a vote of the Trustees, no Medals from the Society 
were awarded, Medal Certificates taking their place. Certificates 
were awarded also by the New York and Pennsylvania societies 
as noted. The new Totty Memorial Medal went to Mr. Hulley for 
his rose garden. 

The Show was happily a success financially as well as ar- 
tistically, making a profit of $16,436.01. Almost a thousand 
dollars in small change went into a wishing well at the Show 
and was turned over to the Red Cross. Although the Show was 
circumscribed by being held in Horticultural Hall, the location 



98 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

had certain advantages. It brought the Society to the attention 
of thousands of persons who had known nothing about its work, 
and some of them promptly became members. 

When the annual meeting was held a few weeks later the new 
Chairman of the Committee on Exhibitions, Dr. Elmer D. Merrill, 
reported that the Committee had worked closely with the Prize 
Committee as instructed by President Webster and that copies 
of the minutes of each meeting had been sent to that Committee. 
In addition, the members of the Exhibition Committee had re- 
ceived transcripts of the proceedings of each meeting of the 
Prize Committee. In this way, reported Dr. Merrill, a mutual 
understanding of all problems between the two committees had 
been developed. Thus the situation which had brought forth the 
critical report of Dr. Merrill's predecessor was apparently cleared 
up to the satisfaction of all concerned, and in a manner to estab- 
lish a pattern for future years. 

In his report as Chairman of the Committee on Prizes Aubrey 
Butler said, "At our first business meeting of the year Mr. 
Webster emphasized the fact that judges should keep in mind 
that they are judging a flower exhibit rather than a garden or 
established planting. In connection with this suggestion your 
Committee recommends that a new scale be devised for judging 
garden exhibits with dramatic appeal." 

The other reports at the annual meeting had to do largely with 
conditions produced by the war. The President spoke of 
afternoon and evening classes and the plans being made for 
Summer canning demonstrations. State Garden Committee meet- 
ings were being held regularly in the Hall and the City Garden 
Committee with Mr. Nehrling as Secretary was very active. Mr. 
Farrington was acting temporarily as county agent for Suffolk 
county. Hundreds of bulletins were going out and a miniature 
demonstration garden constructed by Harold Bent had been set 
up in the entrance lobby. Robert G. Stone, a long-time Trustee, 
had gone to Washington to work for the army with the rank of 
captain, and Edwin F. Steffek, an assistant to the Secretary, had 
also joined the armed forces. Captain Stone thought it best not to 
continue as a member of the Board and Dr. George O. Clark was 
elected to succeed him. 



AMERICA'S ONLY IMPORTANT SPRING SHOW 99 

By vote of the Trustees Dr. Merritt L. Fernald and Professor 
Alfred C. Kinsey were awarded a Gold Medal Certificate for the 
book "Edible Wild Plants of Eastern North America" as the most 
notable book of a horticultural nature published in 1943. 

The membership situation improved materially. The downward 
trend was stopped about the middle of the year and from then 
on more members were added than were lost. There was a total 
increase in membership fees of about $300, a small amount it is 
true, but enough to be reassuring. The various organizations hav- 
ing their headquarters in the Hall continued their work in spite 
of war-time restrictions, but the Mycological Club of Boston, 
which had been a valued tenant for twenty-five years, decided to 
move to Cambridge, where its specimens would be more readily 
available. This very useful club was organized in 1895. 

The Society's magazine Horticulture continued reasonably suc- 
cessful, although showing a small loss (it was $529.13 for the 
year) and maintained a circulation of 35,000 with no serious at- 
tempt to increase it being made. It was called upon to give up many 
hundreds of valuable engravings to meet the copper shortage. 

The Albert C. Burrage Gold Vase was awarded to L. Sherman 
Adams for the most outstanding exhibit in 1943, but it could 
not be delivered because of the prevailing restrictions on the use 
of gold. James Geehan kept the employment bureau functioning, 
although it had become extremely difficult to meet the demand 
for competent gardeners. The younger men were in the service, 
as a matter of course, but the trend toward smaller estates, which 
was to become very pronounced later, was already in the initial 
stage. The Society carried on a radio program on Saturday morn- 
ings for some months. Later George Graves of the editorial staff 
took over a morning program, which had been instituted by Miss 
Elizabeth Blossom, a Library assistant, and was kept busy answer- 
ing gardening questions. Miss Blossom had resigned to go to the 
Library of the Cleveland (Ohio) Garden Center. 

It became noticeable that the size of the Society's Year Book 
was becoming steadily smaller as the price of paper and print- 
ing grew greater. The 1943 edition had only sixty-four pages as 
against 114 pages in the issue of 1933. 

Richardson Wright was the recipient of the George Robert 



ioo TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

White Medal of Honor in 1943. He had at the time been editor of 
House and Garden for thirty years and still held that posi- 
tion. He had written many books, had lectured widely. He was 
a Chairman of the International Flower Show and a Trustee of 
the New York Botanical Garden. He had already been awarded 
a Gold Medal by the American Iris Society, as well as the Arthur 
Hoyt Scott award. He had been president of the American Rose 
Society and the Men's Garden Club of New York and had long 
been on the Board of Directors of the Horticultural Society of 
New York. 1 

The Thomas Roland Medal was awarded Edward Owen 
Orpet, an Englishman who came to this country, as a young man 
and made a reputation as an orchid grower on the Bayard Thayer 
estate in Lancaster, where he became superintendent. He origi- 
nated many orchid varieties that became popular as cut flowers. 
He also produced the bi-generic hybrid, Epicattleya orpentiana. 
In the ten years at Lancaster, he received many medals from the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society and other organizations. 
From Massachusetts Mr. Orpet went to Illinois, becoming super- 
intendent of the Cyrus H. McCormick estate, and later became 
a park superintendent. Then he went to California to establish 
a nursery of rare plants and win additional honors. He was 81 
years old when this award was made. 

Wilfrid Wheeler, long a prominent figure in New England 
horticulture, was given the Jackson Dawson Memorial Medal. 
Born and raised in Concord, he traveled in England and France 
after his college days, studying horticultural developments in 
those countries. Later he became Secretary of the State Board 
of Agriculture and was appointed Commissioner of Agriculture 
when that position was established. When his term expired he 
moved to Hatchville, a part of Falmouth, and from then on had 
done much to develop and improve horticulture on the Cape, in- 
cluding the commercial growing of strawberries and melons. He 
also had become interested in the beach plum from a commercial 
angle and had been awarded the Jewett prize for beach plum 
improvement. Finding that American holly thrived on the Cape, 

1 Now retired, Mr. Wright is living on Cape Cod. 



AMERICA'S ONLY IMPORTANT SPRING SHOW 101 

he had given much time to the study and propagation of holly 
plants, selecting the best strains. 2 

In the course of the year Mrs. Fisk Warren presented the 
Society a valuable collection of orchid prints. With this gift as 
a nucleus the Library Committee decided to accumulate a some- 
what extensive collection of both fruit and flower prints. The 
foundation was laid with the purchase of 500 items, all by estab- 
lished artists. It was planned to develop in time a well-rounded 
representation of artists, periods and plants such as no other 
institution has attempted. 3 

The Library started a children's bookshelf in 1943, at the 
instigation of Mrs. S. V. R. Crosby, who felt that more atten- 
tion should be given to the encouragement of gardening by the 
newer generation. Books for juniors relating to gardening and 
nature were added as fast as they appeared. 

This was the 75th year of continuous service for the Benevolent 
Fruit and Flower Mission and a critical year, as it had been 
affected adversely by World War conditions. Nevertheless much 
good work was accomplished, the members of the Committee 
sharing their ration points for the purchase of canned goods and 
jellies. 

2 Mr. Wheeler is still active at his home in Hatch ville as this is written. 
3 Later committees seem to have been less interested in the project, without 
much advance being made. 



1944— PRESIDENT WEBSTER HANDS HIS GAVEL 
TO JOHN S. AMES 

THERE was a strange, tense feeling in Horticultural Hall 
at the beginning of 1944 and continuing until after the 
Spring Show. War-time activities of many kinds imposed 
a strain on the staff, but coincidentally there came a demand from 
the state and the city that a safety program be put into imme- 
diate effect. In fact, it had to be completed, the Trustees were 
told, before the Spring Show would be permitted to open. Here 
is what was required: Two new exits on the ground floor. An 
exit from the Library to the adjoining roof. The rehanging of 
all outside doors so that they would swing outward. The com- 
plete removal of one pair of doors leading to the Library. A 
change of locks on many of the doors. Fireproofing the door 
leading from the kitchen to the boiler room. Installing double 
rails on all the stairways and executing various safety measures 
in the attic, where exhibition material was stored. 

Persons familiar with the building will understand that break- 
ing through the thick walls to provide additional exits was no 
light task. The fire marshal had insisted in addition that the fire 
escape at the rear of the building be replaced, but finally agreed 
that this work might be deferred until Summer. 

The last screw in this large program was driven into place 
on the morning of the Show's opening day. Although these safety 
requirements, an aftermath of the tragic Coconut Grove disaster, 
called for much additional labor at a time when most of the 
janitor's assistants were green men, they helped give the Hall a 
rating as one of the safest public buildings in the city. 

Time was found for the January Camellia Show, even in the 
midst of all this work, with an exhibit which won a Silver Medal 
Certificate for Mrs. J. D. Cameron Bradley, whose Camellia 
Chandleri elegans was voted the best bloom on the tables. 



JOHN S. AMES TAKES THE GAVEL 103 

The success of the 1943 Spring Exhibition in Horticultural Hall 
made possible the approach to the 1944 Show on a basis of con- 
fidence. With a few lessons learned from the previous year, wider 
aisles and a rerouting of the crowds made the exhibits easier to 
view and eased congestion at many points. Still, the attendance 
of 63,274, about seven thousand more than in 1943, taxed the 
building's capacity to the fullest extent. Indeed, it was necessary 
to close the doors at times, and often a queue reached around 
the corner of the building. The increased attendance was reflected 
in a profit of $24,776.26, pleasing news for the Trustees in a 
year when expenses were running high. 

Many persons from other states, even New Jersey and Penn- 
sylvania, came to see the Show, for again it was the only one of 
importance anywhere in the country. Amazement was expressed 
that exhibits of such a spectacular nature could be set up under 
the conditions then prevailing. The arrangement of the halls in 
the building were such in themselves however, as to promote 
good showmanship, with the huge permanent drop curtain at the 
end of the largest hall lending a valuable scenic effect. 

The character of the exhibits may be gathered by the awards. 
The President's Cup and also the Gold Medal Certificate of the 
Horticultural Society of New York went to Alexander I. Heimlich 
for a Pan-American garden, actually a fascinating jungle garden. 
Will C. Curtis' all-American garden, with a great variety of 
plants, was awarded the Bulkley Medal of the Garden Club of 
America, while the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society's Gold 
Medal Certificate was won by the Gardner Museum for an ex- 
hibit of Cymbidium pauwelsi beautifully grown. 

Through the generosity of Mrs. Galen Stone and Mr. and Mrs. 
Robert Stone a new award, the George Holliday Prize, was estab- 
lished in 1944 in memory of Mr. Holliday, who for many years 
had been in charge of the gardens and greenhouses at "Great Hill," 
the Marion estate of Mrs. Galen Stone. This prize, restricted to 
private gardeners, was for award only to an exhibitor of pot 
plants showing the highest standard of culture. The first award 
was made in 1944 to Stewart Johnson, gardener on the Stone 
Estate for a collection of acacias. The garden clubs had an im- 
portant part to play in this Show, of course. They were assigned 



104 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

to the mezzanine floor, where a terrace garden was one of many 
pleasing exhibits. 

The fast moving events of this eventful year soon brought the 
annual meeting, which in itself was to have unusual importance, 
as Mr. Webster was to make his last address as President, after 
having held that office for almost thirteen years, a longer period 
by almost three years than that of any other President in the 
Society's long history. As usual the meeting was held at the 
same time as the Daffodil Show which, as in former years, helped 
increase the attendance. 

In his address Mr. Webster reviewed briefly the advance in 
membership and influence which had taken place during his term 
in office and that of his predecessor, Mr. Burrage. He himself 
had headed the Society through a depression and more than a 
year of war without seeing any loss in the organization's vitality 
or activity, and he rejoiced in the union with the New York and 
Pennsylvania Societies in the same field. 

He said he had tried to be fair to both the commercial interests 
and the amateurs working within the Society, as well as the 
garden clubs and the special societies meeting in the Hall. He 
believed that the necessity of maintaining a balance between all 
the groups represented was of the greatest importance. He felt 
that he had done a real service in bringing about more active 
cooperation between the Exhibition Committee and the Prize 
Committee, and he continued to believe that the rule requiring 
at least one change in the Board of Trustees each year was a good 
rule, although it might work hardship at times. He paid a warm 
tribute to John S. Ames, who seemed certain to become his suc- 
cessor, and who had been well trained by his long service as 
Treasurer and a member of various committees. 

Following his address Mr. Webster presented the George 
Robert White Medal of Honor to Richardson Wright, to whom 
it had been awarded late in 1943 as noted. Later in the after- 
noon Mr. Wright read a learned and comprehensive paper about 
the Empress Josephine and her gardens. Mr. Webster also made 
the presentation of the President's Cup to Alexander I. Heimlich. 

In the report of the Library Committee the Chairman, Charles 



JOHN S. AMES TAKES THE GAVEL 105 

K. Cummings, stated that his Committee had recommended to 
the Trustees that two additional members be added, making five 
in all, three of whom must be Trustees. This recommendation 
having been accepted by the Board was being presented to the 
Society as an amendment to the By-Laws at this meeting and 
was to be adopted. Mrs. Susan McKelvey and Dr. Elmer D. Mer- 
rill were later to be added to the Committee. 

The recataloguing of the Library was perforce suspended when 
the young woman doing that work went into defense work. Late 
in 1944, however, it was found possible to engage the services 
of Miss Ethelyn M. Tucker, formerly the Librarian at the Arnold 
Arboretum, and this much needed undertaking was resumed. The 
Library enlarged its services during the year by offering a free 
talk by a member of the staff to any garden club which might 
choose to have a meeting at Horticultural Hall. A large collection 
of kodachrome slides from interesting and rare garden books was 
prepared, making lectures available on a variety of subjects. 
Since most clubs like to have tea after their meetings, tea equip- 
ment for fifty was provided and a case arranged for it on the 
mezzanine floor. Perhaps the timing was wrong, but the response 
to this generous gesture was not what had been expected. 

In 1944 the First National Bank of Boston obtained permission 
to have a painting made to represent the first Exhibition of the 
Society, in 1829, a reproduction to be used in a series of blotters 
showing notable "firsts." A large, framed copy of this painting 
was presented to the Society and given a place in the Library, 
where at this writing it still hangs. 

Three thousand and ten books had been borrowed in 1943, 
which was a drop of 983 from the previous year, continuing a 
trend that had persisted for five years. Early in 1944, however, 
the discouraging trend was halted, with a marked increase in the 
number of borrowers, and the curve was to continue upward 
with a return to normal living. 

In reporting for the Committee on Prizes Aubrey B. Butler, 
the Chairman, said: 

"The Committee on Prizes views and appraises each and every 
exhibit during the year which would be eligible for the Burrage 



106 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

Vase award. Because of this fact your Committee feels that the 
Committee on Prizes as a whole should have more to say in 
the awarding of this vase." 

Mr. Butler also said that his Committee had done all the 
judging at the smaller shows rather than ask judges to come 
from a distance, with transportation and man-power shortages 
such as they were. His Committee had also emphasized the neces- 
sity of scaling all exhibits judged. 

Samuel J. Goddard, reporting for the Committee on the Ex- 
hibition of the Products of Children's Gardens, spoke of the 
greatly expanded school and home garden program brought 
about through the efforts of the School and Park Departments of 
the city. They had been reflected in the largest exhibition of the 
products of children's gardens ever held in the Hall. 

Mr. Goddard had words of warm commendation for Daniel 
O'Brien, in charge of gardening and vocational agriculture in 
the Boston school system, and Henry G. Wendler, Assistant 
Director of the Boston Victory Garden Committee who at this 
time were doing much of the work required in setting up the 
Children's Shows. He gave credit, too, to Earle Nodine, in 
charge of the 4-H section of these Shows, which had grown 
remarkably in size and in the quality of material shown. He 
spoke also of the assistance given by Mrs. Henry D. Tudor in 
preparing the schedule. 

At the close of the meeting announcement was made that 
John S. Ames had been elected President, as anticipated by Mr. 
Webster in his address. In point of succession he had become the 
thirtieth in a long list of distinguished men holding this office. 

It is seldom that as many as four new Trustees are elected in 
a single year, but that happened in 1944, when Paul Dempsey, 
Ernest Hoftyzer, Q. A. Shaw McKean and George Lewis, Jr. 
were added to the Board. Messrs. Dempsey, Hoftyzer and Mc- 
Kean were elected at the annual meeting. Mr. Lewis was ap- 
pointed by the newly organized Board with Mr. Ames presiding 
when Walter Hunnewell was elected Treasurer, thus creating a 
fourth vacancy. 

At this meeting of the Board resolutions were adopted in 
memory of Winthrop L. Carter, a Trustee who had passed away 



JOHN S. AMES TAKES THE GAVEL 107 

a few weeks earlier. Mr. Carter was a wise and active member 
of the Board who only a few weeks before his death had pre- 
sided at an important conservation meeting held at the Hotel 
Statler by this Society in cooperation with the Advertising Club 
of Boston. 

With the financial picture none too satisfactory it was decided 
to break a long-time precedent and embark on a quiet campaign 
for additional capital through an Endowment Fund. John 
W. Queen, who directed the advertising for the Spring Flower 
Shows, was placed in charge and solicitation was continued 
through the year ahead, although without any fanfare. 1 

The passing of Miss Marian Roby Case on July 4 was a serious 
loss to the Society. She had been very active in various branches 
of the Society's work, but especially in the development of the 
Exhibition of the Products of Children's Gardens. She had much 
to do with persuading the Board to purchase Horticulture when 
Mr. Farrington became Secretary and contributed to its pages. 
A large projector was among her gifts to the Society and she 
offered special children's garden medals over a long period of 
years. 

Miss Case bequeathed $50,000 to the Society, the largest be- 
quest for many years. She had long conducted a Summer school 
for boys at her home in Weston, giving instruction in various 
branches of gardening. It was her dearest wish to have this school 
continued after her death and she had suggested willing her 
estate to the Massachusetts Horticultural Society if it would 
guarantee to carry out her wishes. Both Mr. Burrage and Mr. 
Webster had discussed this matter with Miss Case, but neither 
had felt that the Society should be bound to such an agreement 
on a permanent basis without an endowment sufficient to make 
the school independent. In the end Miss Case willed the larger 
part of her estate to Harvard University in the expectation that 
it would be used for the benefit of the Arnold Arboretum. It is 
significant that the University has made no attempt to continue 
the school, as Miss Case desired. 

It was also necessary in 1944 to record the death of Mrs. 

1 The campaign was closed in 1946, as will be seen, but contributions received 
since then have set the Fund total at $40,361.31. 



108 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

Elizabeth Downs Wadsworth of Winchester, sister of Jere Downs, 
a former Trustee who had passed away in 1935. Mrs. Wadsworth 
left many bequests on the basis of shares but because of certain 
disputes distribution was long delayed. Finally a compromise was 
agreed upon by which the Society received $19,668.19. This sup- 
plemented a bequest of $15,000 from her brother. 

In the Winter of 1944 the Secretary was invited to a confer- 
ence at the Garden Center in Cleveland, where an expansion plan 
on broad lines was being considered. After several hours of dis- 
cussion, the recommendation was made that Arnold Davis of the 
staff at the Massachusetts State College be offered the position 
of Director. This was done and Mr. Davis accepted, beginning a 
career which was to enhance his reputation as a leader and execu- 
tive and to add greatly to the prestige of the Cleveland Center. 
The Secretary was also called to Washington and to Philadelphia 
for conferences. With Mr. Nehrling he helped formulate plans for 
giving increased importance and influence to the organization 
known as United Horticulture, plans which were to bear fruit in 
later years. 

It had become not unusual for authors to seek publishers for 
their books through the editorial staff at Horticultural Hall. Dr. 
U. P. Hedrick, long head of the New York State Experiment 
Station, sought such assistance and an excellent publisher was 
found for his books. The manuscript of his first volume and the 
proofs were read at the Hall. Mr. Farrington wrote an introduc- 
tion for the book. 

Continued requests for ready-made programs to be provided 
garden clubs and other organizations were not easy to meet. 
Finally a bulletin containing a wide variety of garden programs 
was issued. 

In the course of the year the Society was called upon to pro- 
vide judging schedules for the New York Times and a list of 
gardens as subjects for articles to be published in House and 
Garden. Material, including 100 lantern slides, was sent to Port- 
land, Oregon, for a meeting in memory of Ernest H. Wilson. 

Although these details are those of a single year they are not 
to be taken as peculiar to that year, but as an indication of each 
year's routine. 



JOHN S. AMES TAKES THE GAVEL 109 

Theodore Wirth of Minneapolis, Minn., awarded the George 
Robert White Medal of Honor in 1944, had had a remarkable 
record of efficiency in the development of public parks and in 
making them of special value as recreational centers. A Swiss 
by birth, he first won fame by his work at Elizabeth Park in 
Hartford, Conn., where in 1903 he established the first municipal 
rose garden in this country. Mr. Wirth became Superintendent 
of Parks in Minneapolis in 1906. 

Few rosarians were better known at the time than Joseph 
Herbert Hill, awarded the Jackson Dawson Memorial Medal. In 
Richmond, Ind. he had one of the country's largest rose-growing 
establishments, and had introduced several roses which had won 
wide popularity, with Better Times topping the list. Joanna Hill, 
named for his daughter, was another well-known variety. 

Albert A. Hulley received the Thomas Roland Medal in 1944. 
At the end of the year he was also awarded the Albert C. Burrage 
Gold Vase for a rose garden at the Spring Show, the outstand- 
ing exhibit at any of the Society's exhibitions, thus making 1944 
a banner year for him. Mr. Hulley's skill had long been demon- 
strated at the Flower Shows. 

Arthur Herrington, a well-known horticultural expert of Madi- 
son, N. J., had said that the rose plants in the Hulley garden at 
the 1943 Show were the finest he had ever seen at any Show in 
America. In addition to roses Mr. Hulley had been very success- 
ful in the cultivation of rare clematis varieties, occasionally used 
in his exhibits. 

The method devised by Professor Jacob K. Shaw of the Massa- 
chusetts State College by which to identify varieties of fruit 
trees in the nursery was considered so valuable that the Society's 
Gold Medal was awarded him in 1944. His system had been 
applied so widely that the shipping of misnamed fruit trees by 
reliable nurseries had been largely overcome. 

Another State College man, William R. Cole, was selected by 
the Trustees for a somewhat unusual award, the result of his 
highly efficient efforts in the promotion of Victory gardens and 
in the preservation of the products of these gardens during the 
war-time emergency. Mr. Cole was given a handsome Scroll 
signed by the President of the Society. As an organizer this 



no TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

man had few equals, and his energy, resourcefulness and execu- 
tive ability had made him a recognized leader. 

The Treasurer's accounting at the end of the year showed a 
loss of only $270.34, as against $3,305.78 the previous year. The 
earnings from the Spring Show were largely responsible for the 
improved financial showing, although membership fees added an 
extra thousand dollars and the sale of surplus Library books 
brought in about $2,800. The Autumn Show had the unusually 
heavy loss of $2,913.77, however, and Horticulture reported a 
$382.04 deficit. Yet $2,592.93 still remained in the earned sur- 
plus account. It was considered to have been a good year for a 
Society operating under war-time restrictions. 



1945— PEACE BRINGS MANY NEW PROBLEMS 

JOHN S. AMES had been president of the Society just a year 
when the annual meeting was held on May 7, 1945. Through- 
out that year he had been confronted by problems en- 
gendered by a world war. In the year ahead he was to encounter 
a new set of problems, created in part at least, by the coming of 
peace. The Spring Show yielded $5,000 less than the one in 1944, 
and the Society's operating expenses were rising. With the better 
bonds giving way to those having a lower rate of interest, the 
President, along with the Treasurer and the other members of the 
Finance Committee, had pressing investment questions to con- 
sider. Mr. Ames in his address mentioned the small deficit of 
$200 which existed at the end of 1944, but predicted that the 
loss would be greater in the year then under way. He was right, 
as the Treasurer's books at the end of the year were to show. 

Mr. Ames called attention to the loud speaker system which 
had been installed since the previous annual meeting and which 
gave everyone in the room an opportunity to hear what was being 
said. He explained that the system had been developed to such 
an extent that music could be broadcast throughout the lower 
floor at the time of the Spring Show. Mr. Ames spoke with warm 
appreciation of the work done by the organization known as 
Garden Club Service Inc. headed by Mrs. Sherman Whipple, 
which was extremely active at the various hospitals for wounded 
servicemen. Over a thousand dollars was raised for this work by 
means of a wishing well at the Spring Show. 

He expressed thanks to Mrs. William C. Endicott for a portrait 
of her late husband, who had been the Society's president in 19 19 
and 1920. Grateful acknowledgement was made also of a portrait 
of Jere A. Downs, a benefactor of the Society and a Trustee from 
1933 to 1935. The President was pleased that the membership 



ii2 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

curve had continued upward, a total of 7,200 having been reached 
at that time. 

Weather conditions were such that the usual Daffodil Show 
could not be held at the time of the annual meeting. Indeed, it 
as well as the Tulip Show, was given up. However, the Librarian, 
Miss Manks, had arranged an exhibition of valuable prints and 
original paintings. Following the business meeting she used a 
lantern and screen to show some of the Society's new slides in 
color that dealt with the Library's most important treasures. 

The result of the balloting showed that Richard C. Paine and 
Mrs. William A. Parker had been added to the Board of Trustees. 
The members had voted also to approve an amendment to the 
By-Laws which served in part at least to meet the demands of 
the Exhibition and Prize Committees that they be permitted to 
vote on the award of the Albert C. Burrage Gold Vase. The 
amendment made the Chairman of each of these two Committees 
a member of the Award Committee, which must make its report 
to the Trustees, which body must in turn announce the decision 
in the month of December, as required by the deed of gift. 

The Spring Show was the last of the three to be held in Horti- 
cultural Hall and was perhaps the best. The attendance, a total 
of 57,167, was less than in the previous year, but this was due to 
an agreement with the Office of Defense Transportation not to 
publicize the Show outside the Boston commutation area because 
of the hotel and transportation situation. It was again the only 
large Flower Show in the country and might have been expected 
to attract visitors from other states. The smaller attendance 
reduced the profits to $19,952.72. 

The outstanding feature of the Show was a California redwood 
scene set up by the Frost & Higgins Company at the end of the 
large hall. This unique and spectacular exhibit won a Gold Medal 
Certificate and at the end of the year was to be awarded the 
Albert C. Burrage Gold Vase. An acacia group in the name of 
Mrs. Galen L. Stone of Marion won the Gold Medal Certificate 
of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, in addition to the 
President's Cup. The award of the Horticultural Society of New 
York went to the Bay State Nurseries for a Virginia garden. A 
southwest desert garden won the Massachusetts Department of 



PEACE BRINGS MANY NEW PROBLEMS 113 

Agriculture's prize for F. I. Carter and Sons of Tewksbury. The 
Beacon Hill Garden Club cup went to the Garden Club Federa- 
tion for "a well conceived and beautifully carried out garden 
club exhibit." The new George Holliday Memorial prize was 
awarded William Todd of North Uxbridge for a group of cine- 
rarias. 

Among the unusual exhibits was a five-pointed star featuring 
education, food, diversion, decor and treatment arranged by the 
occupational therapy section of the Lovell General Hospital. An- 
other was an exhibition of the work done by Garden Club Serv- 
ice, Inc. at army and navy hospitals. Each received a Silver 
Medal Certificate. Frank Seiner had succeeded Mr. Peirce as 
landscape consultant and had much to do in connection with this 
Spring Show. 

Items of interest from the other Shows included an award to 
Dr. George O. Clark for the best bloom in the Camellia Show, 
the flower being Semi-Double Blush. The New England Region 
of the American Iris Society was given a Gold Medal Certificate 
for an outstanding Iris Exhibition, an unusual recognition for 
an entire show. At the Iris Show Paul Frost set up an iris garden 
in memory of Miss Grace Sturtevant. At the Harvest Show the 
Lovell General Hospital received a Silver Medal Certificate for 
an exhibit of ninety tomato varieties. The newly established 
Lily Show in July was attended by 3,000 persons and seemed to 
be growing in popularity. No Autumn Show was held in 1945, but 
its omission caused so much criticism that the Trustees promised 
to reinstate it the next year. 

It has been expected that a cessation of hostilities would see 
a diminishing interest in vegetable growing and, indeed, the 
questions received had shifted in great measure to ornamentals 
even before peace had been declared. Yet the government was 
now asking that every effort be made to induce amateurs to go 
on growing food crops. There was nothing to do it seemed but 
to encourage people to grow vegetables, as the government 
wished, along with the ornamental plants which they were deter- 
mined to grow. 

William H. Judd, propagator at the Arnold Arboretum for 
thirty-three years and a member of the Horticultural Society 



ii4 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

since 1922, passed away suddenly on the night of May 23, after 
hurrying to a fire near his home in Jamaica Plain. He was the 
first to propagate many of the plants from China and Japan in- 
troduced through the Arboretum. Mr. Judd was born in England 
and for a time was employed at Kew Gardens. He had traveled 
widely in Europe and was a friend of Lord Aberconway, at whose 
home he visited several times. He had received the Jackson Daw- 
son Gold Medal and the Veitch Memorial Gold Medal. 

Other names which appeared in the necrology list included that 
of Henry M. Howard, a market gardener who had often exhibited 
at the Hall, that of Miss Grace Sturtevant, prominent as an iris 
hybridizer, and that of Professor Frank A. Waugh, who had 
been awarded the George Robert White Medal of Honor in 1941. 
In the list, too, was the name of Albert Cameron Bur rage 3rd, 
killed in the war. 

An important event late in the year was an award to the So- 
ciety itself — a Certificate from the Garden Club Federation of 
Massachusetts, together with a citation acknowledging its in- 
debtedness to the Society for its "invaluable cooperation in the 
development of the Federation." It was in Horticultural Hall in 
1927 that the Federation was organized, after several meetings 
had been held at the suggestion of Mr. Farrington. 

With the war over, the Committee on Gardens began to func- 
tion again and late in 1945 the Trustees made several awards on 
its recommendation. The Society's Gold Medal was awarded to 
the Waltham Field Station of the Massachusetts State College 
for its educational work and its service to commercial and ama- 
teur gardeners. A Scroll was awarded the Boston Victory Garden 
Committee appointed originally by Mayor Maurice Tobin for its 
work in developing an outstanding demonstration garden on 
Boston Common, and testifying also to the success of the Com- 
mittee in promoting Victory gardens at Franklin Park and other 
properties belonging to the city. It was stated as a matter of 
interest that Ernest Hoftyzer, a member of the Board, had served 
as Chairman of this Committee and that Arno H. Nehrling, the 
Society's Director of Exhibitions, had served as Secretary. The 
Trustees voted to award a Scroll to John R. Macomber for his 
home "Raceland" in Framingham. 







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PEACE BRINGS MANY NEW PROBLEMS 115 

The Board also acted on a series of recommendations by the 
Committee on Special Awards. William N. Craig of Weymouth 
was chosen for the George Robert White Medal of Honor, as 
one of the best known horticultural experts of the Eastern states, 
a man who was retiring from business after a lifetime devoted to 
the improvement of horticulture, both as to plants and methods. 
Mr. Ross, who made the recommendation in behalf of his Com- 
mittee, described Mr. Craig as an outstanding figure in the horti- 
cultural world and as having exerted tremendous influence in 
many horticultural fields, with particular emphasis on lilies. This 
award was warmly approved. 

It was voted to award the Thomas Roland Medal to Professor 
Edmund F. Palmer, Vineland Station, Ontario, based on the fact 
that Professor Palmer had distinguished himself in two fields. 
For twenty years he was in charge of fruit breeding at the Station 
and had been responsible for most of the new peach varieties 
being grown on the Niagara Peninsula. He was even more widely 
known, however, as a gladiolus breeder, having originated many 
choice varieties, including Picardy. 

Walter B. Clarke of San Jose, California, was chosen to receive 
the Jackson Dawson Memorial Medal. He had propagated many 
worthwhile trees, shrubs and vines, the citation stated, among the 
most important being garden hybrids of Chaenomeles. 

In recommending the Society's Gold Medal for Mrs. John H. 
Cunningham of Brookline Mr. Ross said, "Mrs. Cunningham has 
been a driving force in many fields of horticultural activity over 
a long period, her culminating achievement being her outstanding 
victory garden work, when she organized and personally super- 
vised the most successful canning kitchen in New England dur- 
ing the war." The Committee also recognized Mrs. Cunningham's 
exceptional executive ability as shown at the Flower Shows and in 
her garden club activities, and her success as a gardener as 
shown by her own place. 

It was voted to award the Society's Gold Medal to Daniel 
O'Brien, head of the school garden work in Boston, where school 
gardens originated. He had labored for many years to maintain 
the highest standards in the gardens under his control. In addi- 
tion, his efforts in behalf of the children's exhibitions at Horti- 



n6 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

cultural Hall had been of such value that the Committee felt they 
should be recognized in this manner. 

Early in the year the resignation of Mrs. Emily I. Elliott as 
Executive Secretary of the Benevolent Fraternity Fruit and 
Flower Mission was announced. This followed eighteen years of 
successful work in developing and expanding the operations of 
the organization from its office in Horticultural Hall. Mrs. 
Elliott's energy and enthusiasm were boundless and she gathered 
about her a band of loyal women who spent many hours prepar- 
ing baskets and containers for hospitals, elderly people and 
shut-ins. 

The coming of this organization to the Hall in 1922 helped 
solve a serious problem. Before that time it had been difficult to 
prevent a scramble for flowers at the close of each Show, some- 
times with disastrous results. There were many complaints, too, 
about the dumping of flowers that were in good condition, and 
about the loss of fruits and vegetables. Under the new arrange- 
ment groups of women move in at the close of each Show and 
systematically gather up the good material, which is made into 
bundles and distributed. Miss Ethel E. Hudson was appointed to 
succeed Mrs. Elliott. 

Mr. Ames' mild note of pessimism at the annual meeting in 
May had been based on a keen understanding of the general 
situation, it seemed, for the Treasurer's report on December 31 
showed a deficit of $4,967.89. This was in spite of the fact that 
the income from investments had increased by $2,300, that Horti- 
culture had earned a small profit, that there had been no Autumn 
Show loss, and that membership dues had brought in $1,500 more 
than in the previous year. The building expenses had jumped by 
$1,600 and office and general expenses by $4,500. Operating costs 
were rising. However, $19,872.41 of the Joseph E. Chandler be- 
quest had been received, with more to come, and the Treasurer 
could report a net profit of $9,483.11 on the sale of securities, 
but of course these sums were added to capital. 



1946— A YEAR CROWDED WITH 
FAR-REACHING EVENTS 

THE year 1946 was to be an eventful year in the history of 
the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. It was to see a 
triumphal return of the Spring Flower Show to Mechanics 
Building and a larger attendance than at any previous Show. It 
was to see a rapid increase in membership, a substantial addition 
to the Society's capital assets, several important changes in the 
Board of Trustees, the resumption of normal activities in all de- 
partments, an increased demand for private gardeners following 
the war, a satisfactory profit and, at the end of the year, the resig- 
nation of the long-time Secretary at the age of 70. 

First the Spring Show, which was moved down the street again 
but only after some hesitation. Mr. Nehrling was certain that the 
move would be a wise one and the members of the Exhibition 
Committee backed him up. The tremendous success of the Show, 
with its record-breaking 129,085 visitors, proved that the Show 
Manager and the Exhibition Committee had been right. The peo- 
ple of New England were hungry for the great floral spectacle, 
and with travel restrictions removed, they were able to come from 
far and near. 

It is possible to suggest the vast range of exhibits only as they 
can be indicated by the special prizes. The Bay State Nurseries 
set up a Memorial Garden in Grand Hall which won the Presi- 
dent's Cup and at the end of the year was to receive the Albert 
C. Burrage Gold Vase as the most outstanding exhibit at any 
of the Shows. Medals themselves were again given by this Society, 
but the other horticultural societies continued with certificates. 
That of the Horticultural Society of New York went to Mr. and 
Mrs. John S. Ames for a Chinese garden. The Pennsylvania Cer- 
tificate was awarded Mr. and Mrs. Robert G. Stone for an in- 
formal exhibit of acacias. A garden of cacti and succulents won 



n8 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

the Sarah Todd Bulkley Gold Medal of the Garden Club of 
America for F. I. Carter & Sons. The Garden Clubs' Exhibition 
Committee had a very attractive suburban house and garden, with 
which it won the Beacon Hill Garden Club's Cup, as well as the 
Society's Gold Medal. 

With this successful Show as something for general satisfaction 
at the annual meeting on May 6, there were yet other matters to 
be happy about. President Ames reported remarkable growth in 
membership, a total of more than 8,000 having been reached. He 
spoke of the wide appeal which the Library was making to gar- 
deners in other states and the service which Horticulture per- 
formed in calling the attention of its readers to this Library. The 
President mentioned with regret, however, the resignation of 
Charles K. Cummings from the Board of Trustees. Mr. Cum- 
mings had served long and faithfully as a Vice President and as 
Chairman of the Library Committee. 

Amplifying the President's remarks about the Society's mag- 
azine, the Secretary said that a check had been made to ascertain 
the degree to which it actually served as a feeder for the Society. 
It was found that thirty-one subscribers had become members in 
the month of February and sixty-five in March. It was also 
attracting new members to both the New York and Pennsylvania 
societies. 

Transferring the Spring Show to Mechanics Building had made 
the work at Horticultural Hall much easier, the Secretary said. 
The Hall itself had suffered physically to some extent from the 
great crowds which had assembled there for the war-time Shows 
and considerable work would be needed in refinishing the floors 
and walls. 

In his last report as Chairman of the Library Committee, Mr. 
Cummings said that the information booth in charge of the Li- 
brarian at the Spring Flower Show had provided an unusual 
opportunity to reach a wider public. The number of questions 
asked and the sale of garden books were double those in any 
previous year. Mr. Cummings said that 323 books had been 
added to the collection and that about half the books borrowed 
went outside the state, some to points as far away as California, 
Mexico and Nova Scotia. A new edition of "Four Hundred Books 



A YEAR OF FAR REACHING EVENTS 119 

for Amateur Gardeners" was being sent to all members. In closing 
his term of office, Mr. Cummings paid tribute to the service 
rendered by Miss Manks, the Librarian. 

At the close of the annual meeting tea was served under the 
direction of Mrs. Roger S. Warner, assisted by other members of 
the Board. Thus was inaugurated a custom which was to persist 
to the present time and which has proved the most satisfactory 
solution yet devised for attracting a reasonably good attendance 
at the annual meetings. There was, of course, a social hour in 
connection with the serving of tea. Another pleasant event in the 
course of the afternoon was the presentation of the George 
Robert White Medal of Honor to William N. Craig. 

When the ballots had been counted, it was announced that 
Aubrey B. Butler of Northampton had been elected a Vice Presi- 
dent and that W. P. Wolcott had been added to the Board. 

A highly important event in 1946 was a ruling by the Depart- 
ment of Internal Revenue in Washington in respect to the classi- 
fication of the Society. In the future, it was announced, no taxes 
would be imposed on bequests and gifts to the organization. This 
was the result of a long and comprehensive brief filed with the 
department by Charles Hovey and Kenneth W. Bergen, attorneys 
representing the Society. Efforts had been made twice before to 
obtain such a decision but had failed. 

The campaign for adding to the Society's Endowment Fund 
was closed in 1946, although various sums from pledges were to 
continue to come in. The campaign was not as successful as had 
been hoped, but the amount raised was not insignificant, the total 
at the time being $31,319.95. 

In the course of the year Richard C. Paine found it necessary 
to resign as a Trustee and Stedman Buttrick was chosen by the 
Board to fill out the balance of his term. Later Mr. Buttrick was 
to be elected by the Society and to become very active, as will be 
noted. 

Mr. Nehrling attended the organization meeting of United 
Horticulture in Cleveland and was elected a Director. He also 
attended a meeting in Washington to discuss the food situation 
from the viewpoint of the amateur gardener. 

In the course of the year the Trustees voted to participate in 



120 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

a plan to place a suitable stone on the grave of Ernest H. Wilson 
in Mt. Royal Cemetery in Montreal. Contributions for this pur- 
pose were started by the Royal Horticultural Society, with an 
appropriation of $500. An appropriation was also made by the 
Horticultural Club of Boston, over which Mr. Wilson at one time 
presided. 

Edwin F. Steffek returned from military service in 1946 and 
resumed his work as editorial assistant, most of his time being 
devoted to a revision of "The Plant Buyer's Index," which had 
been purchased from the widow of J. Woodward Manning. This 
book was to be completely rewritten and issued in a new form as 
"The Plant Buyer's Guide." It was to be a long, tedious under- 
taking, but one well worthwhile. 

In 1946 the Trustees were approached for the second time with 
a tentative offer to purchase the building. Although this approach 
was made through a real estate agent, it was believed to have 
come from one of the Society's neighbors. The members of the 
Board replied that they were not interested in such a transaction. 
Actually, they were giving consideration to a possible reconstruc- 
tion of the building so as to provide additional exhibition space 
and to make the Library more accessible, but in the end all such 
plans were abandoned, as the cost would be excessive. 

For a time a section of the smaller hall was turned into a recep- 
tion room, with an attendant to answer questions and refer visi- 
tors to the departments they might wish to visit. However, this 
arrangement had to be given up because of the many rentals 
which demanded the full use of this hall. Later a large, portable 
bulletin board for the purpose of directing visitors to the depart- 
ments they might wish to visit was installed near the entrance 
and has proved very useful. 

Four medals were awarded in 1946 on recommendation of the 
Garden Committee, with George Lewis as Chairman. Mrs. R. 
Boyer Miller received the H. H. Hunnewell Medal for her estate 
in Wenham, an unusual place on a hillside and terraced on three 
levels, with supporting walls planted to rock garden material. 

Mrs. Arthur Adams was awarded a Silver Medal for her estate 
in Dover, where wide use had been made of fruit trees grown in 



A YEAR OF FAR REACHING EVENTS 121 

espalier form around a large garden. Both apples trees and pear 
trees had been used with great success. 

A Silver Medal also went to Mr. and Mrs. William Stuart 
Forbes for their estate in Hamilton, where the house and garden 
had been tied together with exceptional skill, a delightfully inti- 
mate effect being obtained. 

The Wenham estate of Mr. and Mrs. Ellery Sedgwick won 
them the Society's Bronze Medal because of its interesting and 
distinctive character, with many ornamental cherries and other 
trees with a weeping habit. 

One more honor was added to the many given Dr. Elmer Drew 
Merrill, former Director of the Arnold Arboretum, when he was 
awarded the George Robert White Medal in 1946 for service 
to horticulture. Dr. Merrill began his career at the University of 
Maine in his native state, but established his reputation as an 
outstanding botanist after he went to the Philippines in 1902 to 
join the Bureau of Agriculture and the Bureau of Forestry. Later 
he became head of the Department of Botany in the University 
of the Philippines and Director of the Bureau of Science. He 
wrote many papers on the botany of the Philippines and near-by 
countries, and described 3,000 new species of plants. A new phase 
of his career began in 1923, when he became Dean of the Col- 
lege of Agriculture and Director of the Agricultural Experiment 
Station of the University of California. In 1930 he was called to 
New York to become Professor of Botany at Columbia University 
and Director of the New York Botanical Garden. In 1935 he was 
appointed Professor of Botany and Administrator of the botani- 
cal collections at Harvard University. This appointment auto- 
matically placed him in charge of the Arnold Arboretum, where 
he served until he resigned in 1946. 

Dr. Merrill was credited with more than 400 botanical papers. 
He held membership in many learned societies here and abroad, 
and had the distinction of being the only American member of 
the Royal Swedish Society. 

The Thomas Roland Medal for skill in horticulture was 
awarded Thomas H. Everett of New York, a finished garden 
craftsman and an excellent instructor. A graduate of Kew Gar- 



122 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

dens, he came to this country to take charge of the H. E. Man- 
ville estate in Pleasantville, N. Y. and soon acquired an enviable 
reputation by his exhibits at the New York Flower Show. Ap- 
pointed horticulturist at the New York Botanical Garden in 1932, 
he at once began revitalizing one of the country's great indoor 
plant collections. 

Miss Isabella Preston, long connected with the Central Experi- 
mental Farm in Ottawa, was awarded the Jackson Dawson Medal 
for skill in hybridizing and propagating lilies, lilacs and other 
garden material. Her so-called "stenographer" lilies had been 
attracting much attention at flower shows. Miss Preston was 
an Englishwoman and trained in the best tradition of British 
gardening. She was the author of the book "Lilies for Every 
Garden." 

A Gold Medal went to Dr. Albert F. Blakeslee, a member of 
the botany department of Smith College, for research in plant 
breeding. He had formerly been a staff member at Harvard and 
the University of Connecticut, as well as Director of the Carnegie 
Station for Experimental Evolution. The much publicized tech- 
nique of influencing plant heredity by applying the drug colchicine 
to cause chromosome changes was one of Dr. Blakeslee's innova- 
tions. 

For many years James J. Hurley had been a consistent exhibi- 
tor at the Horticultural Society's Shows as superintendent for 
Mrs. Robert Treat Paine, II. His rare skill had brought many 
awards. He now received a Gold Medal. 

During the year the Trustees voted $100 to aid in carrying on 
the backyard garden work in a near-by section of the city, work 
in which the Society had long had an interest as has been noted. 

In 1946 the Dahlia Show was abandoned after having been 
scheduled for many years. Interest in dahlias had obviously been 
waning in New England. The New England Dahlia Society, which 
had been responsible for the Show, was losing its members and 
most of the men who had set up exhibits were becoming inactive. 
So the Show had to be discontinued and no attempt has been 
made to revive it. 

It was voted by the Trustees that Gold Medals be struck for 



A YEAR OF FAR REACHING EVENTS 123 

persons entitled to them but who had been given certificates 
during the emergency period. 

In December Mr. Farrington announced his resignation as 
Secretary, to take effect on the last day of the year. He was 
tendered a complimentary dinner at the Algonquin Club which 
was attended by the Officers and Trustees and was presented a 
valuable gift, along with a Scroll. Later he received a set of 
Shakespeare figurines from the Massachusetts Federation of Gar- 
den Clubs. 

It was fortunate that the Spring Show had shown a large profit, 
for the earned surplus fund on the Treasurer's books had been 
exhausted and a small deficit still remained, although Horticul- 
ture could report a substantial income and membership fees had 
increased by about $2,000. The deficit was wiped out by the Show 
profits and the sum of $12,558.23 was added to the Show Insur- 
ance Fund, increasing this fund to $53,177.93. The Fund has re- 
mained at this figure to the present time, the interest being used 
for the support of the Summer and Fall Shows. 



1947— ADVENT OF A NEW SECRETARY 
BRINGS MANY CHANGES 

ON JANUARY i, 1947, Arno H. Nehrling became Secre- 
tary of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, only the 
fourth since a paid Secretary was first appointed in 
1876. He was to be known as Executive Secretary to make his 
position clear, but his duties and responsibilities were to be no 
different from those of his predecessors. Fourteen years as direc- 
tor of exhibitions had made him fully acquainted with the So- 
ciety's traditions, purposes and activities, for all the departments 
at Horticultural Hall are closely interlocked and interdependent. 
The change brought about certain rearrangements, however. Mr. 
Farrington had been Secretary and Editor and it had been neces- 
sary to employ a Show Manager. Now Mr. Nehrling was to be 
Secretary and Show Manager and it became necessary to employ 
an Editor, although Mr. Nehrling was to have general supervision 
of Horticulture with the title Director of Publications. 

William H. Clark, an experienced journalist and author, who 
had previously been the Society's press representative, was se- 
lected as Horticulture's Editor with the understanding that he 
would continue his press contacts. In the Spring George Graves, 
who had been Assistant Editor and Garden Consultant, left the 
Society to open a nursery on Martha's Vineyard, where he was 
to specialize in the propagation of beach plums and both Amer- 
ican and English hollies. He had already received the Jewett prize 
for his reports on the commercial cultivation of beach plums. 

It was necessary to plunge at once into the final preparations 
for the Spring Show, which posed more than the usual number of 
problems, caused by a shortage in labor and more particularly an 
increase of ten to fifteen per cent in the cost of supplies. However, 
the attendance was only a little less than in the previous year, 
despite a rainy day, and the profit was $75,158. 



A NEW SECRETARY AND MANY CHANGES 125 

A particular popular feature at the Show was a Vermont cov- 
ered bridge set up by Sherman Eddy, which received a Gold 
Medal and was to be awarded the Albert C. Burrage Gold Vase 
at the end of the year. The Bay State Nurseries won the Presi- 
dent's Cup with a house and garden on the stage. The award of 
the Horticultural Society of New York went to Mr. and Mrs. 
Robert G. Stone for their acacias and that of the Pennsylvania 
Society to Mrs. Helen Adams of Wellesley for cypripediums 
showing the highest degree of culture. 

William Todd of North Uxbridge again won the George Holli- 
day Memorial prize, showing beautifully grown clivias. The 
Beacon Hill Garden Club's Cup was won by the "Winter Gar- 
deners" with a greenhouse and sun-heated pit. The Sarah Todd 
Bulkley Gold Medal of the Garden Club of America went to Mrs. 
Irving C. Wright, co-chairman of the Garden Clubs' Exhibition 
Committee, for her work in planning the exhibit of that group. 
This committee, headed by Mrs. James Perkins and Mrs. Wright, 
was also awarded a Gold Medal for a contemporary house and 
garden. It was interesting to find a Gold Medal going to Lord 
Aberconway for a group of white cypripediums sent over from 
London. 

At the annual meeting on May 6 Mr. Nehrling appeared as 
Secretary for the first time, reading an interesting report. First, 
however, Mr. Ames made his annual address as President. He re- 
ferred to the change in secretaryship and it may not be outside 
the bounds of modesty to quote a few lines from his address as 
a matter of record. "When Mr. Farrington took over the duties 
of Secretary," Mr. Ames said "the affairs of the Society were 
rather dormant, but during his years of activity he completely 
revitalized the organization. Between 1923 and 1946 the member- 
ship was increased from 1,010 to nearly 9,000. He greatly ex- 
tended the services and influence of the Society so that it became 
in effect a national organization with members in forty-six of 
the forty-eight states. He greatly enlarged the size and circula- 
tion of the magazine Horticulture, giving it a commanding posi- 
tion in gardening journalism." 

Mr. Ames then congratulated the Society on being able to 
obtain in Mr. Nehrling a man who had been with the Society for 



126 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

fourteen years and who had both the experience and capacity to 
take over the duties and responsibilities of this exacting position. 

Mr. Ames reported on the bequest of Miss Marian Roby Case 
and that of her sister, Miss Louisa Case, who passed away in 
1946. Half the total of $100,000 had been received, Mr. Ames 
said. The house and grounds in Sudbury which had come to 
the Society, as noted, through the will of Joseph E. Chandler had 
been sold, Mr. Ames stated, for approximately $25,000. Mr. 
Chandler, whose death occurred in 1945, had been a Trustee of 
the Society and had supervised much of the decorative work 
within its building. It was voted to establish a memorial fund to 
carry Mr. Chandler's name, the interest to be used for general 
expenses. 

The Secretary's report showed a marked upsurge of interest 
in the Society, more than 1,600 new members having been added 
since the previous annual meeting, making the total membership 
9,440, the largest in the Society's history. 

Mr. Nehrling explained a new educational program. A Spring 
course in the planting of home grounds, designed primarily for 
veterans starting new homes, had been largely attended. A course 
for school children had been planned, along with a series of lec- 
tures, which would bring a number of prominent speakers to the 
Hall. Mr. Nehrling spoke also of plans to expand Horticulture 
as soon as the paper shortage would permit. Thus a well-rounded 
program which promised well for the Society's future was being 
mapped out. Professor Ray M. Koon was added to the Board of 
Trustees in 1947. 

The Society was host to three national horticultural societies 
in the course of the year. The American Delphinium Society and 
the American Peony Society participated in the June exhibition, 
while the Chrysanthemum Society of America contributed much 
to the Autumn Show. The last named was considered by experts 
the best Chrysanthemum Show in many years. The Lily Show 
in July brought enthusiastic growers from many parts of the 
country and then and there the North American Lily Society 
was born. 

A new exhibtion, one devoted to house plants, was included in 
the schedule and proved of interest to many women. The exhibits 



A NEW SECRETARY AND MANY CHANGES 127 

of begonias and African violets were remarkably comprehensive. 

However, the Trustees decided at the end of the year that 
thirteen exhibitions in a single season were too many. The cost 
was too great and too little time was left for needed repairs and 
a proper grooming of the building. Accordingly it was voted to 
reduce the number of Shows in 1948 to ten. The Peony, Iris, and 
Rose Shows in June were to be combined and the House Plant 
Show united with the Harvest Exhibition. 

It was a particularly busy year for Mr. Nehrling. He attended 
the annual conference of the American Horticultural Council 
in New York and was a speaker. He was elected Secretary to the 
Council at that meeting. He represented the Society in Washing- 
ton on certain proposed changes in the quarantine laws and pre- 
sented the position of the Society, which was in opposition to the 
proposed changes. He attended a meeting of the Arthur Hoyt 
Scott Foundation at Swarthmore, Pa., as a member of the com- 
mittee appointed to award the Arthur Hoyt Scott Medal. With 
Dr. Merrill, representing Harvard University, he attended a din- 
ner in Ithaca, N. Y. honoring Dr. Liberty Hyde Bailey, who had 
just observed his ninetieth birthday. 

The Garden Committee confined itself to three awards in 
1947. A Gold Medal went to Stedman Buttrick, on recommenda- 
tion of the Committee, for an estate in Concord laid out with much 
skill and with gardens maintained at a high level of culture. Mr. 
Buttrick's collection of irises, which made the gardens especially 
notable, contained and still contains at this writing a great many 
of the choicest varieties. 

The remarkable plantings of narcissi maintained by John Rus- 
sell in Dedham won him a Gold Medal, also. Many thousands of 
narcissi in hundreds of varieties on acres of almost untouched old 
pasture land created, the Committee believed, one of the best ex- 
amples of the use of Spring bulbs in a naturalistic planting to be 
found in this country. 

The Society's Silver Medal was awarded H. Wendell Endicott 
of Dedham for a very extensive planting of tulips. 

Ernest F. Coe, a resident of Coconut Grove, Florida, received 
the George Robert White Medal in 1947. Mr. Coe was known as 
the "father of Everglades National Park," which fact indicated 



128 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

one reason for this award. The truth is that this park came into 
being only after many years of sacrificial work on the part of 
Mr. Coe, who had devoted much of his entire adult life to the 
project. At the time of this award he was in his eighty-first year. 

The Thomas Roland Medal for skill in horticulture went to 
Eric Walther of Golden Gate Park, San Francisco. In its cita- 
tion the Committee on Special Medals declared that Mr. Walther 
had accomplished a most remarkable undertaking in assembling 
a beautiful collection of native and exotic plants in a new botanic 
garden of seven acres. 

To Dr. M. A. Blake of the New Jersey Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station went the Jackson Dawson Memorial Medal. Dr. 
Blake had worked with fruits for many years, specializing in the 
development of peaches, an important crop in his section. Actu- 
ally the new varieties he created had revitalized peach-growing 
all over the country. 1 

Ernest Borowski was voted a Gold Medal for his horticultural 
skill as demonstrated in the propagation of plants, especially 
azaleas. The Committee believed him to be the country's out- 
standing authority on the cultivation of greenhouse azaleas. 

A particularly sad event in 1947 was the death of William N. 
Craig at his home in Weymouth. Mr. Craig was one of the 
ablest plantsmen of his time and a man whose personality and 
achievements had made him honored and respected on both sides 
of the water. Coming to the United States in 1890 after a thor- 
ough training in his native England, he established himself in 
eastern Massachusetts, where he was to spend the rest of his life. 
For many years he managed the famed F. L. Ames estate in North 
Easton and later Faulkner Farm in Brookline. 

Mr. Craig was a correspondent of the Florists Review for 
forty-five years and wrote for the old Garden and Forest when 
that publication was in the heyday of its popularity. He was an 
active member of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society and at 
one time a member of the Board of Trustees. He was presented 
the George Robert White medal by President Ames at the annual 

1 When this award was made it was not known, of course, that Dr. Blake had 
just passed away. When the Medal was received at Rutgers, the heirs of Dr. 
Blake presented it to the college. 



A NEW SECRETARY AND MANY CHANGES 129 

meeting of the Society in 1946. He had not missed a regular meet- 
ing of the Gardeners' and Florists' Club in thirty-nine years and 
had long held office in the club. He was a member of the Horti- 
cultural Club of Boston and the National Association of Garden- 
ers. 

In the course of 1947 a large portrait of Edwin S. Webster, 
who preceded Mr. Ames as President, was received and was hung 
in the Secretary's office. It had been painted in 1925 by Philip 
A. de Laszlo. 

In the course of the year Mr. Ames and Mr. Nehrling discov- 
ered in the Society's strong box in the First National Bank a bot- 
tle of seeds taken from the corner stone of the first Horticultural 
Hall, which was on School street. Mr. Koon agreed to take half 
the seeds from the bottle and make a test to ascertain if they were 
still viable. It may be said that the results were negative. The 
seeds did not sprout. 

The Treasurer's report at the end of the year disclosed that the 
Greater Endowment Fund had been raised to $35,460.16. The 
income from investments had increased by about $6,000 and that 
from rentals by about $5,000, with a small profit from Horticul- 
ture. However, work on the building had increased expenditures 
by over $10,000. The balance on the right side of the ledger was 
$3,642.44. 



1948— IMPORTANT CHANGES IN PERSONNEL 

THE Society began the year 1948 with a membership of 
11,000, the largest in its long history. It was to continue 
to grow through the year by another thousand, with a 
vigorous campaign under way. It was not to be an exciting year, 
but one of expansion and rehabilitation. In fact, a year of nor- 
malcy. Improved conditions made possible much repair work 
which necessarily had been postponed, some of it the result of 
wear and tear caused by holding the war-time Spring Shows in 
Horticultural Hall. The task of cleaning the portraits, begun the 
year before, was to be continued. Trustees had decided on having 
ten portraits cleaned each year until all had been restored. 

Beginning with January the magazine Horticulture, which had 
been published first as a weekly and later twice a month, was 
issued monthly, but enlarged and improved in various ways. Con- 
ditions were now more favorable to its expansion both editorially 
and in its circulation. Mr. Clark, the new Editor, attended the 
convention of the Men's Garden Clubs of America in Atlanta and 
represented this Society at a luncheon of the Pennsylvania Horti- 
cultural Society at the time of the March Flower Show in Phila- 
delphia. 

Mr. Nehrling represented President Ames at a dinner given by 
the Horticultural Society of New York in connection with the 
International Flower show. He presented this Society's Gold 
Medal to Lambertus C. Bobbink of the firm of Bobbink & Atkins 
for having had the best garden at the 1947 Show in New York, 
and a similar Medal to Don Roehrs for the best garden in 1948. 

This brings us to the Boston Show, held as usual in Mechanics 
Building. It was an unusually expensive show because of an 
exceptional amount of construction required in preparation for a 
Dutch village on the stage, which set the theme for Grand Hall. 
Furthermore, nearly all the exhibits in that Hall were developed 



IMPORTANT CHANGES IN PERSONNEL 131 

at the expense of the Society itself, although the tulip bulbs, used 
in great numbers, were supplied without charge by the Dutch 
Tulip Growers Association. Altogether, the cost of the Show was 
well over $100,000 and it is not surprising that those in charge 
were somewhat worried as the installation work progressed. How- 
ever, this worry proved groundless, for crowds poured into the 
building from the opening hour, the total attendance for the week 
being 115,000. Although the profit was less than that of the 
previous year, it totaled $51,000, there being the advantage of 
a higher admission rate. Egbert Hans again was active in setting 
up this show, there being a large amount of scenery to paint. 

Grand Hall was rich in color, but many of the choicest exhibits 
were in the other halls. Alexander I. Heimlich had a naturalistic 
garden so good that it won the Society's Gold Medal, the Gold 
Medal of the Horticultural Society of New York, the Charles H. 
Totty Memorial Medal and the Sarah Todd Bulkley Medal of the 
Garden Club of America, while at the end of the year was to be 
awarded the Albert C. Bur rage Gold Vase for the best exhibit at 
any of the season's Shows. 1 

Lexington Nurseries, Inc. won the President's Cup for a 
"Garden of Reverie" and the Gold Medal Certificate of the 
Pennsylvania Horticultural Society went to Albert A. Hulley for 
a rose garden in the manner that had won him many awards in 
the past. The George Holiday Memorial Prize was awarded Peter 
Arnott, gardener for Mr. Webster, and the Beacon Hill Garden 
Club's Cup was received by the Groton Garden Club for an 
exhibit showing the corner of a fruit garden. 

The Junior League Garden Club set up a June border of such 
excellent quality that it won a cup offered by Mrs. John S. Ames. 
William Todd of North Uxbridge continued to win laurels for his 
skill as a gardener, being awarded the Antoine Leuthy Gold 
Medal, a new award made possible by a fund established by Mr. 
Leuthy, long a prominent Boston florist. 

Several changes in the Board of Trustees were announced at 
the annual meeting. William P. Wolcott had passed away, while 
Q. A. Shaw McKean had resigned because of a change in resi- 

*No record has been found of any other exhibit that has received so many- 
awards in the history of the Society. 



i 3 2 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

dence. Harlan P. Kelsey, a Trustee for many years, declined re- 
election and was succeeded by his son Seth L. Kelsey. John Chand- 
ler was elected for one year to fill out the unexpired term of Mr. 
McKean. George B. Cabot was chosen to succeed Mr. Wolcott. 

At a meeting of the Board of Trustees which followed the an- 
nual meeting Mr. Hunnewell resigned as Treasurer and Mr. 
Buttrick was selected to succeed him. George Lewis, Jr. was again 
made assistant Treasurer. 

In his report at the annual meeting Mr. Nehrling paid tribute 
to Mr. Wolcott, who had devoted himself in several capacities to 
the Society's welfare. He was of the third generation in his family 
to be active in the affairs of the Society. The Secretary spoke 
of a successful radio program over WHDH conducted by Seth 
L. Kelsey, with the station contributing the time. He made men- 
tion, too, of a lecture by John Nash Ott, Jr., which was so well 
attended that it had to be immediately repeated. Several other 
lectures were given as a contribution to the Freedom Garden 
movement then being promoted by the government. 

Dr. Merrill in his report as Chairman of the Exhibition Com- 
mittee made special mention of a newly organized Women's Ex- 
hibition Committee of the Society. A group of garden club women 
had been acting unofficially for several years in the setting up of 
important exhibits at the Spring Show. The Trustees had now 
brought this group within the framework of the organization. 
It was given a certain amount of financial support and has 
continued to function with great credit. 2 

Samuel J. Goddard was appointed Chairman of the Prize Com- 
mittee to follow Dr. Clark, with Thomas Milne acting as Co- 
Chairman. Mr. Goddard remained as Chairman also of the Com- 
mittee on the Exhibition of the Products of Children's Gardens. 
It was a matter of great regret that he was unable to act in either 
capacity after the early Summer Shows. Before the coming of the 
next Spring Show he had passed away. His loss was felt deeply 
not only by the Trustees but throughout the Society, for he had 
been active on various committees for many years and was very 
well known. He had been a Trustee since 1930. A florist in Fram- 

8 It is still a temporary committee in effect, however, as no provision for it has 
yet been made in the By-Laws or by vote of the Society. 



IMPORTANT CHANGES IN PERSONNEL 133 

ingham, he was sagacious and always dependable. Such criticisms 
as he had to make as Chairman of the Committee on Prizes were 
given with a smile and always accepted graciously. 

Of the Summer Shows only the one devoted to lilies was of 
special importance, although the attendance at all of them was 
larger than usual. The year-old North American Lily Society held 
its first annual meeting in connection with the Lily Show, and 
interested gardeners from several other states were present. The 
Show was rated as the largest and most successful Lily Exhibition 
ever held in this country. Yet it was to be the last one at Horticul- 
tural Hall, at least for the years immediately ahead. Its value 
was not sufficient, the Trustees thought, to warrant the time and 
expense required to put it on. Also, it came in July, the one month 
in which there was an opportunity to make needed repairs and 
give the Hall a general renovation. 

Because of Mr. Goddard's illness another member of the com- 
mittee, Daniel W. O'Brien, took charge of the Children's Garden 
Show, at which there was a remarkable increase in the number of 
entries, due to favorable growing conditions. 

Announcement of the death of the Secretary of the Fruit and 
Flower Mission, Miss Ethel E. Hudson, was received late in the 
year with deep regret. Miss Hudson was efficient, tactful, always 
ready with a smile and devoted to her work. Mrs. Ida A. Perkins 
was appointed to succeed her. 

The Committee on Gardens, with Dr. Clark as Chairman, recom- 
mended only three awards in 1948 and omitted the H. H. Hunne- 
well medal altogether. Apparently it was becoming increasingly 
difficult to meet the requirements of this award, as the Medal 
could be given only for estates of three acres or over showing 
exceptional tree and shrub planting and the highest form of culti- 
vation. Most large estates had not been kept at a high level fol- 
lowing the war, but there was now an increased demand for 
experienced gardeners. 

The Society's Gold Medal was awarded the Isabella Stewart 
Gardner Museum in the Fenway for a "garden of exceptional 
merit." Many persons who visit the Museum fail to visit the 
garden adjacent to the building, really a demonstration garden 
of great educational value. 



134 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

The Society's Silver Medal was awarded Mr. and Mrs. Willard 
Hudson of 44 Winthrop Street, Winchester, for "the skillful de- 
velopment of the outdoor living-room type of garden." This 
garden was recommended by the Committee as one that might 
well be emulated. 

A Silver Medal was given also to Mr. and Mrs. Henry G. 
Stoddard, Bass Rocks, Gloucester, "for a wonderful transforma- 
tion of bare rocks into a beautiful garden combining the best 
features of a boulder terrain as a background." 

The Special Medals Committee, with Mr. Ross as Chairman, 
selected Lord Aberconway, President of the Royal Horticultural 
Society, to receive the George Robert White Medal of Honor. 
Lord Aberconway was described as probably the outstanding 
figure of his day in British horticulture. 3 

Henry Kohankie of Painesville, Ohio, was chosen for the 
Thomas Roland Medal, because of his great skill in horticulture 
and his interest in unusual trees and shrubs, many of them diffi- 
cult to find elsewhere. 

To Professor H. B. Tukey, then head of the Department of 
Horticulture at Michigan State College, went the Jackson Daw- 
son Medal for his skill in the hybridization and propagation of 
hardy woody plants. Dr. Tukey was formerly connected with 
Cornell University and the New York State Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, where he did distinguished work in the production 
of new small fruit varieties. 

George Palmer, awarded the Society's Gold Medal, had been 
exhibiting at the Society's shows for many years, as superin- 
tendent for Mrs. R. M. Saltonstall. In fact, the records disclosed 
that he had exhibited at more Shows conducted by this Society 
than any other single person. He seemed able to grow any type 
of plant material, but was particularly successful with standard 
heliotropes, fuchsias, roses and geraniums, admirable plants for 
exhibition purposes but not undertaken by many greenhouse 
men. 

The director of the Berkshire Garden Center at Stockbridge, 
A. Kenneth Simpson, had become widely known for his adminis- 
trative ability and his horticultural skill. The Committee felt that 

'Lord Aberconway died in 1953. 



IMPORTANT CHANGES IN PERSONNEL 135 

he well deserved the Society's Gold Medal. Gardening is compara- 
tively difficult in the Berkshire hills, and yet the region is famous 
for its gardens and the diversity of its plant material. Much of 
the present-day success there is due to the influence of the Berk- 
shire Garden Center and Mr. Simpson. 

Dr. Hugh P. Baker, then retired and living in Winter Park, 
Florida, was honored with a Scroll setting forth some of his many 
accomplishments. Long head of the Massachusetts State College, 
he saw the institution grow into the University of Massachusetts 
and, indeed, was largely responsible for the transformation. 

Mr. Nehrling made a trip to Miami in December to present the 
George Robert White Medal of Honor to Ernest F. Coe, to whom 
it had previously been awarded as noted. While in the South he 
selected much of the plant material to be used in a tropical scene 
at the 1949 Spring Show. 

Plans were announced this year for a new venture to be in- 
augurated in 1949 — "Garden Week in Massachusetts." Miss 
Mary May Binney had been chosen to head a committee to map 
out the new activity. 

The year ended with a comfortable balance in the treasury, 
$9,107.51, to be exact. Contributing to the good results in 1948 
were an increased income from investments and somewhat higher 
membership returns, plus a very successful Show. The Earned 
Surplus Fund had grown to $12,749.95. Careful management had 
kept the office and Library expenses below those of the previous 
year, but repairs had increased the building expenses, while both 
the Autumm Show and Horticulture had experienced losses. On 
the whole, except for a long necrology list, a total of no, it had 
been a very satisfactory year. 



1949— AN UNEXPECTED WINDFALL 
AND A BUSY YEAR 

MUCH of the time in the early months of 1949 was given 
over to preparations for the new project, " Garden 
Week in Massachusetts," with Mary May Binney as 
Chairman of the committee in charge. Miss Binney gave almost 
all her time to the undertaking, scouting for estates and gardens 
which might be opened to the public and checking the most feasi- 
ble routes. Activities of this kind had been popular in Virginia, 
Maryland and other states, but until this time garden visitations 
in Massachusetts had been confined to smaller organizations 
and conducted on a less extensive scale. Looking forward to June, 
it may be said that some fifty gardens were opened, that busses 
were used to supplement private cars and that visitors came from 
several other states. The venture was so successful, in fact, that 
the Trustees voted at once to repeat it in 1950. 

The most important event of the new year was, of course, the 
great Spring Flower show, at which Grand Hall was treated as a 
unit by the Society, with the cooperation of selected exhibitors. 
The basic theme was a tropical jungle, which called for great 
numbers of orchids to be used to show, as far as possible, their 
methods of growth in their natural habitat. Members of the So- 
ciety, both amateurs and commercial growers, did their part in 
supplying plants. Experts gave their services and special lighting 
effects were developed under the direction of C. Hassler Capron. 
This was a very ambitious undertaking and one that received 
wide publicity. The Society itself was awarded the Bulkley Medal 
of the Garden Club of America for the display. The Robert Stone 
acacias were set up at one end of Grand Hall and never had been 
exhibited to better advantage. Mr. and Mrs. Robert G. Stone 
were awarded the President's Cup for this exhibit. 



A WINDFALL AND A BUSY YEAR 137 

Among the other exhibits of special note was an informal 
garden staged by Harlan P. Kelsey, Inc., which was so good that 
it won the Society's Gold Medal and the Gold Medal of the Horti- 
cultural Society of New York. In addition it was to be given the 
Albert C. Burrage Gold Vase at the end of the year as the most 
outstanding exhibit at any of the Shows. Edwin S. Webster's 
orchids won two special awards, the Gold Medal Certificate of 
the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society and the Antoine Leuthy 
Gold Medal. 

The garden clubs were particularly active at this Show. The 
North Shore Garden Club contributed a " Chinese Tea Merchant's 
Garden," for which it won a cup offered by Mrs. John S. Ames. 
The Beacon Hill Garden Club Cup went to the Buzzards Bay 
Garden Club for a unique exhibit called the " Garden of Peter 
Rabbit." 

George Finnie, a seasoned gardener, came down from Dublin, 
N. H. to win the George Holliday Memorial Prize with a group 
of cinerarias, plants which must be exceptionally good to become 
prize winners. 

The attendance at the 1949 Show fell off somewhat, but it 
totaled 110,197, with one rather poor day because of bad weather. 
Of course the net receipts were proportionately less, the amount 
being $60,607.96, but that amount was very satisfactory, as Mr. 
Buttrick, the Treasurer, commented and the Show was a tremen- 
dous artistic success. Harold Stevenson, landscape architect, had 
become technical adviser and had done yeoman service at this 
Show. 

At the annual meeting which, as always, soon followed the 
Spring Show, Mr. Ames, the President, was able to report a be- 
quest of $30,298.86 from the estate of Francis Brown Hayes. 
This windfall was unexpected, for Mr. Hayes died in 1898 and 
the officers had forgotten a trust fund established by him that was 
to come to the Society when the last recipient of the trust should 
pass away. Mr. Hayes was one of the Society's greatest bene- 
factors, for he gave it $189,904.54 by will when he died. He had 
been President of the Society and active in many ways. Mr. Ames 
also announced additional contributions to the endowment fund 



138 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

amounting to $1,281.30. His report on the membership showed 
an increase to about 12,000, once more the largest in the Society's 
history. 

In his report as executive Secretary Mr. Nehrling announced 
the resignation of Edwin F. Steffek, associate editor, who had 
become a member of the House Beautiful staff in New York. 
George Taloumis, an experienced horticulturist and a talented 
writer, had been engaged to succeed Mr. Steffek. Mr. Nehrling 
spoke of the great Spring Flower Show in Oakland, California, 
which he had attended the week before, calling it the largest and 
most spectacular exhibition he had ever seen. The purpose of his 
visit was to obtain new ideas for the Boston Show and he was 
able to make many notes. While in California he also attended 
the Spring Show at Coronado, conducted by retired army and 
navy officers. 

Reporting for the Library Committee, Dr. Merrill said that 459 
volumes had been added since the 1948 annual meeting, but 
called attention to the fact that prices placed by dealers on im- 
portant old books had increased enormously. Nevertheless, a seri- 
ous attempt was being made to acquire certain of the older books 
as well as keeping up to date with current horticultural literature, 
thus maintaining a proper balance between the old and the new. 
The services provided by the Library were indicated in part by 
the statement that nearly 4,500 books had been loaned to mem- 
bers in the course of the year, going to all parts of the country. 
Dr. Merrill explained that rare and expensive volumes and those 
in constant use for reference purposes were not mailed out, but 
that photostats and microfilm could be supplied at cost. The gifts 
received included two cases of nursery catalogues from the Royal 
Horticultural Society in London. 

Stedman Buttrick made his first report as Treasurer at this 
meeting and found the financial condition of the Society gratify- 
ing. He wondered if the members realized the size and scope of 
the Society's operations, and mentioned the expenditures for the 
year 1948 — a total of $329,082. That large amount of money rep- 
resented literally thousands of separate expenditures, covering a 
bewildering variety of items, from the purchase of rare old books 



A WINDFALL AND A BUSY YEAR 139 

for the Library to organ music at the Spring Show. Oliver Wol- 
cott was added to the Board of Trustees at this meeting. 

Nine Shows were held in the course of 1949, all except the 
Spring and Fall Shows being open to the public without charge. 
All attempts to make the Fall Show pay its way had proved fruit- 
less down through the years, there having been only a single time 
when this was accomplished. A new approach was tried in 1949, 
the introduction of trade space in a limited amount. It was a 
successful innovation, for it cut the expense of the Show by almost 
a thousand dollars. Moreover, it pleased the public, many visitors 
taking the opportunity to buy bulbs and other garden material. It 
was a plan that had been discussed for several years but adopted 
only with hesitation. Yet it was accepted so willingly that it 
seemed likely to become a permanent feature. 

The 1949 Children's Show was the first under the direction of 
the new Chairman, Mrs. Roger S. Warner. Much help was given 
by Mrs. Henry D. Tudor, who had become greatly interested in 
this work, and by Daniel W. O'Brien and Henry G. Wendler, 
both long and consistent supporters of the Show. Of special inter- 
est was a large exhibit from the school garden on the Cummings 
estate in Woburn, operated by the Boston School Department in 
cooperation with the Boston Park Department. This exhibit 
showed such high quality that it won not only first prize but 
also the Silver Medal of the Horticultural Society and a sweep- 
stake Rosette from the Department of Agriculture. It was in- 
teresting to find Mrs. Tudor donating $350 as a fund to be used 
for the purchase of milk for the children working at the Woburn 
garden through the Summer of 1950. 

It should be noted that the Summer of 1949 was excessively 
hot and dry, the driest for forty years, which fact had its effect 
on all the Summer and Fall Shows. 

An observance of the Centennial of the Concord grape was held 
in connection with the Harvest Show in September. Wilfrid 
Wheeler was in charge of the formal program and, as a native of 
Concord, he was able to talk entertainingly about the conditions 
under which Ephraim Bull originated this famous grape and the 
difficulties he had in getting it recognized and accepted. 



Mo TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

There was sadness in many circles when Mrs. Helen Noyes 
Webster passed away on March 21, 1949. Mrs. Webster had been 
an active and highly valued member of the Massachusetts Horti- 
cultural Society for eighteen years. Like her late husband she was 
devoted to botany and gardening, but in her later years had con- 
centrated on the study and cultivation of herbs, acquiring knowl- 
edge which led to the writing of a very successful book on the 
subject. She was among the founders of the Herb Society of 
America, which was to become widely influential. No woman was 
ever more generous with her time and energy than Mrs. Webster 
and the high regard in which she was held was reflected in verses 
written in tribute to her and appearing in the Horticultural So- 
ciety's Year Book for 1949. 

It was painful to find many other well-known names in the 
1949 necrology list. Among them was that of Mrs. Homer Gage, 
at one time an active Trustee and the owner of an attractive 
estate in Shrewsbury for which she had received an award from 
the Society. Another name was that of Robert T. Jackson of 
Peterboro, N. H., who had been an active member when living in 
Cambridge and whose garden is mentioned four times in Mr. 
Benson's history. Professor Jackson was considered an authority 
on peonies. 

J. Horace McFarland's name appears, too. Although living in 
Harrisburg, Pa., Dr. McFarland had long been a member of the 
Society, from which he had received the George Robert White 
Medal of Honor. In the list was the name of Duncan Finlayson, 
long superintendent of the Larz Anderson estate in Brookline 
and one of the best known gardeners in New England, a man of 
remarkable ability. The name of Harry Norton was also there, a 
charming man who had a home in Montreal as well as one in 
Boston and could bring down lilacs long after they had gone out 
of bloom in this area. He was a peony devotee and often exhibited 
at the Boston Shows. 

In the list was the name of Mrs. Albert C. Burrage, that of 
Mrs. Gordon Abbott and the name of Miss Annie R. Blanchard. 
The close association of these fine people with the Society will 
be long remembered. Each necrology list contains the names of 
persons to whom the Society owed much. 



A WINDFALL AND A BUSY YEAR 141 

The Men's Garden Club of Boston came into being during the 
year, following a meeting at Horticultural Hall attended by rep- 
resentatives of the New York City club. Allen H. Wood, Jr., au- 
thor, lecturer and garden expert, often heard over the air, was 
elected President. Edward I. Farrington was made Secretary and 
the holding of monthly meetings began. 

The Secretary of the Horticultural Society, Mr. Nehrling, was 
able to give the following list of organizations meeting in Horti- 
cultural Hall in 1949: 

Garden Club Federation of Massachusetts. 

Associated Flower Arrangers of Massachusetts. 

New England Wild Flower Preservation Society. 

New England Gladiolus Society. 

Gourd Society of America. 

Herb Society of America. 

American Rock Garden Society. 

Gardeners' and Florists' Club of Boston. 

Boston Branch of the American Association of Gardeners. 

New England Iris Society. 

New England Branch of the American Iris Society. 

New England Rose Society. 

Arbortists Association. 

Men's Garden Club of Boston. 

Occasionally the Society awards Medals to persons in other 
countries, but 1949 was the first year in which a Medal had gone 
to an individual in South America. On this occasion the George 
Robert White medal of Honor was awarded to Dr. Wilson 
Popenoe, Director, Escuele Agricola Panamericana, Honduras. 
Dr. Popenoe was one of the most prominent figures of the day in 
the field of tropical horticulture. He first distinguished himself 
in California, where he worked with the avocado and the date 
palm. Later he was active for twelve years as agricultural explorer 
for the federal government. This work led him into Latin America 
and to the staff of the United Fruit Company. He moved to 
Honduras and there established the institution which he was to 
head. It was possible to bestow this award personally through a 
member of the Society's Board of Trustees, as Dr. Merrill was 



i 4 2 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

a guest of the school at the time of the presentation ceremony. 

The Thomas Roland Medal went to Montague Free, formerly 
of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, and well known as a skilled 
horticulturist, a brilliant writer and a popular lecturer. The 
Special Awards Committee established a precedent when it 
awarded not one but two Jackson Dawson Memorial Medals in 
one year. Chosen for these medals were Professor Richard Wel- 
lington and Professor George Slate, both of the New York State 
Experiment Station at Geneva, N. Y. They had won prominence 
by their work in the development of new fruits along approxi- 
mately parallel lines, work which had been of no little benefit 
to fruit growers and the general public. Professor Slate was also 
well known for his work with lilies. 

Dr. Kenneth Post of Cornell University was awarded the 
Society's Gold Medal for his book "Florist Crop Production and 
Marketing." This book was declared to be both significant and 
substantial, an outstanding contribution to the literature of flori- 
culture. It is seldom that a Horticultural Society award goes to 
a newspaper writer, but Haydn S. Pearson's editorials pertain- 
ing to nature study and the relationship between modern civiliza- 
tion and the woods and fields won him a handsome Scroll. Mr. 
Pearson's editorial appeared in the Boston Herald, but did not 
embrace all his writings, for he was the author of several books. 

Seth L. Kelsey had become Chairman of the Garden Committee 
in 1949, succeeding Dr. George Clark. It then became possible to 
award the H. H. Hunnewell Medal to Dr. Clark, something which 
the Board had wished to do for several years. "Chaily" in New- 
buryport was described as a country estate of unusual interest, 
where horticultural skill had been combined with exceptionally 
good taste in the development of a fine location overlooking the 
Merrimack River. Native trees, rare and beautiful evergreens, 
shrubs, flowering plants and ground covers were features of the 
landscape. 

The Committee went to the western part of the state to make 
several of its awards, giving a gold medal to Mrs. George 0. Forbes 
of South Egrement for "Orchard Farm," an "unusually lovely 
small estate where house and garden blend to form a pattern for 



A WINDFALL AND A BUSY YEAR 143 

gracious living." A Gold Medal was awarded also to Mrs. Charles 
Griswold in Stockbridge for a "hillside estate of exceptional 
merit." Especially commended was the restrained planting in 
areas where emphasis on form or color would have detracted from 
a magnificent view of the valley below. 

Mrs. Bernard Hoffman of Stockbridge, who had long been 
active in support of the Berkshire Garden Center, was given the 
Society's Silver Medal for a "small garden combining variety 
of interest with ease of maintenance." 

In keeping with a practice followed by some previous com- 
mittees, awards were made to two industrial establishments. A 
Garden Certificate was voted to the Heald Company of Worcester 
for a "dignified and practical foundation planting that might well 
serve as a model for other commercial enterprises." Another cer- 
tificate was awarded the Norton Company of Worcester for the 
planting of an inner courtyard. A pool and flower beds added to 
the effect. 

A successful series of lectures in the Spring was followed by 
another in the Fall and Winter. One by Jesse Buffum on the Fiji 
Islands attracted so many people that it had to be immediately 
repeated. Even then several hundred persons were turned away. 
Another lecture, one by Milford Wall in which he showed marvel- 
ous pictures of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, drew an overflow 
attendance. It was interesting to find the evening lectures filling 
the hall, whereas in earlier years only lectures given in the after- 
noon were well attended. Doubtless the improved transportation 
facilities resulting from the new subway explained, at least in 
part, this changed situation. Horticultural Hall had become one 
of the most accessible public buildings in the city. 

In the course of the year the Michigan Horticultural Society, 
an active and growing organization, made an arrangement by 
which all its members began to receive each issue of Horticulture. 

The year ended with a favorable balance of $7,239.98 on the 
Treasurer's books. The income from investments had increased 
by $4,000 under the watchful eyes of the able finance Committee. 
Membership fees brought in one thousand dollars more than in 
the previous year. Rentals had taken a surprising jump and 



i 4 4 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

Horticulture showed a profit of $1,056. There was a surplus of 
$27,438.24 from the profits of previous years. The Trustees were 
well satisfied with the results, even though there had been a drop 
in the Spring Show receipts. 



1950— TWELVE MONTHS OF RECORD-BREAKING 

PROSPERITY 

THIS was to be the most prosperous year since the be- 
ginning of the present 25-year period. It was to be a year 
of expansion, with a membership well over the 13,000 mark. 
It was to be the fiftieth anniversary of the opening of Horti- 
cultural Hall. Unfortunately, it also was to be a year in which 
the Society was to suffer heavy losses by death. 

Following the Camellia show in January, at which Mr. and 
Mrs. Dana Osgood of Mt. Pleasant, South Carolina, received the 
prize for the best bloom in the hall, Camellia Ville de Nantes, the 
energies of the staff were bent toward the Spring Exhibition. With 
all the conditions favorable, it was planned to make this the 
superlatively beautiful show, which it proved to be. 

The general theme of the Exhibition was "Old New England," 
with which all the exhibits in Grand Hall were correlated. An old 
mill was placed realistically on the left of the stage by Sherman 
Eddy in a scene that blended into a setting on the opposite side, 
where an old forge, sponsored by Woodbury Bartlett of Hamilton, 
was the center of interest. 

Visitors who entered the building through Exhibition Hall 
passed under a magnificent acacia display from the greenhouses 
of Mr. and Mrs. Robert Stone. The Women's Exhibition Com- 
mittee staged a series of "Rainbow Gardens," very colorful, as 
the name suggested. The Federation of Garden Clubs tied its 
exhibits into the general theme of the Show, thus providing an 
ideal setting for flower arrangements that were even more artistic 
and colorful than usual. 

Year by year the number of special prizes offered had been 
growing until, on this occasion, a small army of judges was re- 
quired. The President's Cup was won by the Isabella Stewart 
Gardner Museum, with the George Holliday Memorial Prize 



146 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

going to John Sullivan for his skill as a gardener in growing the 
outstanding amaryllis plants which made up the Museum group. 
The Chestnut Hill Garden Club won the Beacon Hill Garden 
Club's Cup as the most charming garden club exhibit. The Cup 
offered by Mrs. John S. Ames went to the North Shore Garden 
Club for the horticultural excellence of a blue and white garden. 

Orchids were much in evidence at this show. Perhaps, indeed, 
they had never been shown to greater advantage. The American 
Orchid Society's own award was given to Mr. and Mrs. Edwin S. 
Webster as having the most meritorious exhibit. The Antoine 
Leuthy Gold Medal was won by Fred Walters of Chestnut Hill 
for a group of odontoglossums, while the new T. A. Weston 
Memorial trophy went to Orchidvale, Beverly Farms, for a large 
group of orchids. Both the Women's Exhibition Committee with 
Miss Mary May Binney as Chairman, and the Garden Club 
Federation under Mrs. Chester Cook and Samuel B. Kirkwood, 
were awarded Gold Medals. The profit of the Show was less than 
in the previous year, but it amounted to the very satisfactory sum 
of $60,607.96. 

Just a few days before the annual meeting on May 1 word was 
received of the death of Professor Oakes Ames, long a Trustee 
and for twelve years Vice President. He had been made an 
Honorary Trustee in 1941. Before his retirement Professor Ames 
was supervisor of the Arnold Arboretum and Director of the 
Harvard Botanical Museum. In 1941 he had presented to Harvard 
his orchid Herbarium consisting of 64,000 specimens, probably 
the largest in the world. Earlier he had grown orchids extensively 
at his home in North Easton. He was the author of many books 
and papers, and during his long career described more than 1,000 
new orchid species. He had, of course, received many honors. 
Among them was the George Robert White Medal of Honor 
and the Gold Medal of the American Orchid Society. 

At the annual meeting President Ames said that more than a 
thousand new names had been added to the membership roles, 
giving a total of 13,290. It was again possible to report the largest 
number of members in the Society's history, as had been pro- 
gressively true for several years. This growth had necessarily 
increased the amount of work to be done and additions to the 




Stedman Buttrick, Elected Treasurer in 1948 



TWELVE MONTHS OF GREAT PROSPERITY 147 

staff had been required, giving the Society more employes than it 
ever had had in the past. The President was pleased to state that 
the Society's magazine had been selected for permanent record- 
ing by University Microfilms of the college at Ann Arbor, Michi- 
gan. Also, it had been awarded a Silver Medal by the National 
Garden Institute for conspicuous service to gardening in America. 

In his report as Executive Secretary Mr. Nehrling spoke of 
several improvements, the most important being the installation 
of Edison steam heat, which resulted in a cleaner building and 
one much easier to keep properly heated. It also made possible 
the use of the largest of the halls for sales in the Winter months. 

Mr. Nehrling reported the death of Ellis Joy, who had served 
as head janitor for twenty-seven years. Mr. Joy's long term of 
service had made friends for him among hundreds of exhibitors 
as well as persons renting the halls. He was to be missed partic- 
ularly by the garden club members, as he seemed to know almost 
in advance what their needs would be. Hooper Jackson succeeded 
him. 

The report of Dr. Merrill as Chairman of the Library Com- 
mittee showed an increase of 552 volumes, giving the Library a 
total of 30,069 volumes, making it the largest Library of the 
kind in the country. A particularly interesting accession had 
been a collection of books from the Library of Mrs. Francis King 
of Alma, Michigan, who had passed away. These books were 
placed on exhibition in the Library, where they received much 
attention. Mrs. King had received the George Robert White Medal 
of Honor in 192 1, being very active as a gardener and writer. 
Gifts also included a collection of books from the Library of 
Robert T. Jackson, whose death has been noted, and 120 water- 
colors of English wild flowers from the New England Unit of 
the Herb Society of America. These watercolors, by Ellen Key, 
were given in memory of Helen Noyes Webster. 

Ernest Borowski, a long-time exhibitor and judge, was added 
to the Board of Trustees at the 1950 annual meeting. 

The annual meeting was not long over when, on May 10, the 
members of the Society were saddened by the death of Edwin 
S. Webster, at his home in Chestnut Hill. Mr. Webster, who had 
become a Trustee in 191 7, had been elected Vice President in 



148 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

1925 and became President on the death of Albert C. Burrage 
in June of 1931. He was to hold that position for thirteen years, 
a longer period than had been vouchsafed any of his predecessors. 
Mr. Webster contributed much to the Society and took satisfac- 
tion in watching its rapid growth and expansion. He gave warm 
support to the activities of the American Orchid Society and to 
other organizations promoting horticultural advancement in Amer- 
ica. His interest in roses led to the development of a rose garden 
in Quisset to be numbered among the best in New England. Mr. 
Webster's greenhouses were filled with rare orchids and other 
choice plants which he delighted to exhibit at Horticultural Hall 
as well as at the Spring Shows for the enjoyment and benefit of the 
public. He and Mrs. Webster often opened their lovely garden for 
charity. Mr. Webster's interest in these and other horticultural 
activities continued to the very end of a life which had rounded 
out eighty- two very full and active years. 

In July came the death of James Geehan, who had served as 
advertising manager for Horticulture through seventeen difficult 
years, which had included a depression and a war. Mr. Geehan 
had been well known in the trade before becoming associated with 
the Horticultural Society and had a host of friends throughout 
the country. He made many valuable connections for the maga- 
zine. William R. Littlefield, a graduate of Boston University with 
advertising experience, was chosen to succeed Mr. Geehan. 

Still another change came late in the year when William H. 
Clark announced his resignation as Editor of Horticulture to take 
effect on January 1, 195 1. Mr. Clark, who had served as Editor 
since 1947, had decided to move to Vermont and devote himself 
to the writing of books, in which field he already had won success. 
Daniel J. Foley of Salem was selected from several candidates to 
occupy the editorial chair as well as to maintain contact with the 
newspapers. He was a graduate of the University of Massachu- 
setts, where he majored in horticulture, and where he received 
the first Margaret F. Motley scholarship established by the 
Garden Club Federation of Massachusetts. After graduation Mr. 
Foley became associated with the J. Horace McFarland Company 
in Harrisburg, Pa., where he planned and edited certain of the 



TWELVE MONTHS OF GREAT PROSPERITY 149 

catalogues for which this firm was noted. He had four books to 
his credit. 

The second Garden Week came in late May, when fifty-two of 
the most beautiful gardens and houses in eastern Massachusetts 
were visited by persons from at least thirty-four states. The 
Noanett, Milton, Chestnut Hill, North Shore, Boxford and New- 
buryport Garden Clubs served lunches and teas and conducted 
sales in certain of the gardens. These clubs received substantial 
profits from their special activities but all admission fees accrued 
to the Society. As it happened the Boston Jubilee overlapped 
Garden Week, but the committee arranged with the Beacon Hill 
Garden Club to open some of its gardens and houses. The Society 
received half of the profits. 

William T. Aldrich designed a charming Garden Week poster, 
which was displayed in many store windows, while an illustrated 
lecture about the event was given in several states. Mrs. John 
S. Ames gave a luncheon for the press and radio. Novel and 
effective publicity was obtained at Filene's store, where the glass 
was removed from one of the show windows, permitting the pub- 
lic to walk through an enchanting garden arranged by the Bay 
State Nurseries without charge. Some 10,000 persons dropped 
coins into a fountain, the money obtained in this way being used 
to purchase flowers for patients in local hospitals through the 
Benevolent Fraternity Fruit and Flower Mission. In appreciation 
the Society presented three-year-old albizzia trees from the Ar- 
nold Arboretum to those persons who opened their gardens. 

Because of her work in directing this great undertaking Miss 
Mary May Binney was voted the Society's Gold Medal. Garden 
Week made a profit for the Society of $1,142.89 and attracted 
much attention. However, it was the decision of the Trustees 
that it should not be continued another year because of the great 
amount of additional time and effort demanded of the staff at 
Horticultural Hall and the disinclination of estate owners to con- 
tinue opening their grounds. 

The George Robert White Medal of Honor was awarded in 1950 
to William Hertrich of San Marino, California, in recognition of 
his unusual ability as a landscape architect and his devotion to the 



150 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

development of the San Marino Ranch into the amazingly beauti- 
ful Huntington Botanical Gardens. 1 

Jan de Graaff of Gresham, Oregon, was awarded the Thomas 
Roland Medal. Mr. de Graaff's horticultural background could 
be traced to 1611, when one of his forebears had been recorded 
as a nurseryman of note. Jan de Graaff, the Committee on Special 
Medals declared, was considered America's most distinguished 
authority and hybridizer in the growing of daffodils. In addition, 
the Committee added, his work with lilies was exciting the com- 
mercial and amateur horticultural world. 

The Jackson Dawson Memorial Medal went very appropriately 
to Dr. Samuel L. Emsweller, principal horticulturist in the Bureau 
of Plant Industry at Beltsville, Maryland. Dr. Emsweller had 
achieved renown in many fields of commercial horticulture. 

An amateur, Thomas C. Desmond of Newburgh, N. Y., was 
commended in the form of a Gold Medal for assembling an exten- 
sive collection of native American trees and shrubs on his estate 
and by adding exotic woody plants to create an arboretum of 
interest and importance. 

A Gold Medal was awarded R. G. Chamberlain, superintendent 
for John S. Ames on his estate at North Easton. Mr. Chamberlain 
had shown unusual ability and skill in growing azaleas and other 
rhododendrons both in the garden and in the greenhouse over a 
term of years. 

No estate worthy the H. H. Hunnewell Medal was found in 
1950 and the Committee worked for the most part on the South 
Shore and Cape Cod. Mr. and Mrs. Geoffrey G. Whitney were 
awarded a Gold Medal for their sea-side estate at Woods Hole 
with a citation which stated that it had "unusual charm combining 
excellent architectural detail with exceptional plant material." 

A Gold Medal was received by Mr. and Mrs. S. A. Kirkman for 
a hill-top estate in Cotuit, where trees and spacious lawns created 
an atmosphere of restful quiet. 

A small garden in West Dennis won a Silver Medal for Mr. and 

J The medal was presented to Mr. Hertrich by Alfred Hottes, representing the 
Horticultural Society, at a luncheon sponsored by the Trustees of the Huntington 
Library in April of 1951. 



TWELVE MONTHS OF GREAT PROSPERITY 151 

Mrs. A. L. Gifford. It was described as having simplicity and good 
taste which had created an overall effect of exquisite charm. 

An attractive garden in Hingham won a Silver Medal for Mr. 
and Mrs. Harold S. Ross. On a steep hillside, in a limited area, 
were found plants of wide variety reflecting the horticultural 
interest and energy of the owners. Everywhere a high degree of 
cultural excellence was noted, especially in the test gardens for 
roses, tulips, daffodils and other special groups. 

Dr. and Mrs. Edwin Cohn were given a Bronze Medal for a 
garden in Cohasset, where full advantage had been taken of 
glimpses of the ocean framed by rugged native junipers. 

At the end of the year Mr. and Mrs. Robert Stone were awarded 
the Albert C. Burrage Gold Vase for the most outstanding exhibit 
at any of the shows, the group of acacias at the Spring exhibition, 
which has been mentioned. 

The financial aspects of the Society's operations for the year 
1950 were exceptionally gratifying. The income exceeded expendi- 
tures by $20,306.03. This improvement of about $13,000 as com- 
pared to 1949 could be traced to a greater yield from investments, 
an enlarged membership and a most successful Spring Show. It is 
true that the running expenses had been increased by some 
$10,000 and that Horticulture had to report a considerable deficit. 
Nevertheless, it was possible to show the sum of $43,177.50 in 
the Treasurer's earned surplus account (money that had been 
accumulated from earnings) — the largest at any one time. 



195 1— FINANCIAL LOSSES AND YET 
A GOOD YEAR 

VICISSITUDES such as beset individuals may also be ex- 
perienced by institutions. Thus the year in which the 
Society had known its greatest financial prosperity was 
to be followed by one in which there was no profit but a loss 
instead. This, however, was to result from a chain of circum- 
stances which in no way set a pattern, and the year was to be a 
reasonably good one in many ways. Following the small but 
always pleasing camellia show in January, the great Spring Exhi- 
bition opened in Mechanics Hall on May 7, with special emphasis 
on orchids. This was because the annual meeting of the American 
Orchid Society was to be held in Boston the week of the Show. 
Through close cooperation the two Societies were able to give 
the public what was probably the largest display of orchids ever 
seen in America. L. Sherman Adams and George Butterworth, rep- 
resenting the American Orchid Society, earned much of the credit 
for assembling and grouping the plants, but they had the active 
assistance of many other growers. 

Splendid as they were, however, the orchids comprised only one 
feature of a very beautiful and skillfully arranged exhibition. Mr. 
and Mrs. John S. Ames laid out a formal azalea garden of such 
excellence that it won both the Society's Gold Medal and the 
Gold Medal Certificate of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society 
for them. At the end of the year they were to be awarded the 
Albert C. Burrage Gold Vase for the most outstanding exhibit at 
any of the 195 1 Shows. Jackson & Perkins came on from Newark, 
N. Y. with two rose gardens and received the President's Cup. 
A colorful Spring garden won the Gold Medal of the Horticultural 
Society of New York for Breck's of Boston. 

The Women's Exhibition Committee won the Sarah Todd 
Bulkley Medal of the Garden Club of America with a group of 



FINANCIAL LOSSES AND YET A GOOD YEAR 153 

backyard gardens. The cup offered by Mrs. John S. Ames went 
to the Cambridge Plant Club for an exhibit which displayed 
the greatest horticultural excellence in the Show." There was 
a long list of special orchid prizes, a list too long to be included 
here. It will be found in the 1952 Year Book. The paid attendance 
at this show was 109,890, about 10,000 fewer than in the previous 
year, probably because of one stormy day. 

At the annual meeting on May 7, held as usual in connection 
with the Daffodil Show, Eugene Boerner, representing Jackson 
& Perkins, was presented the President's Cup by Mr. Ames him- 
self. At this meeting George Lewis, Jr. was elected a Vice Presi- 
dent, succeeding Aubrey B. Butler, who continued as a Trustee, 
and Albert C. Burrage was made a member of the Board. 

President Ames presided at the meeting and the usual reports 
were presented. Mr. Nehrling mentioned various meetings which 
had been attended by members of the staff. Mr. Littlefield, the 
new advertising manager of Horticulture, had been present at the 
meeting of the Eastern Nurserymen's Association in New York 
and that of the American Seedsmen in Chicago. Mr. Nehrling 
himself had attended the fiftieth anniversary meeting of the Amer- 
ican Nurserymen's Association in Washington and the Detroit 
Flower Show. 

Miss Manks, the Librarian, had put her book list, "400 Books 
for American Gardeners" into pamphlet form. The Society had 
also published a circular, "Box Method of Obtaining Humus," 
by Stephen Fairbanks for distribution at the Spring Show and 
later. A third publication was a booklet by Albert C. Burrage 
with the title "A Week-end Vegetable Garden," outlining the 
very successful methods used on his place in Ipswich. 

The Executive Secretary also spoke of various exhibits in the 
Library, among them an unusual display of lichens collected and 
mounted by Vernon Prior. Some of the specimens looked like 
precious stones and fascinated visitors to the Hall. Another exhibit 
showing herbs and their uses also attracted attention. It was set 
up by Mrs. Frances Williams, a prominent member of the Herb 
Society of America. 

To illustrate the activities at Horticultural Hall Mr. Nehrling 
gave the schedule of one typical day, as follows: 



154 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

10 a.m. — Garden Club Service meeting in the small exhibition 
hall. 

2 p.m. — Garden Club Flower Arrangement Section in the same 
hall. 

2 p.m. — Flower Arrangement Class conducted by Mrs. Teele 
in the lower hall. 

2.30 p.m. — New England Wild Flower Preservation Society, 
Directors' meeting in the Trustees' Room. 

8 p.m. — Gardeners' and Florists' Club of Boston, Executive 
Committee meeting, in the room on the mezzanine floor. 

In his report as Chairman of the Committee on Exhibitions, Dr. 
Merrill explained a number of matters having to do with the 
Spring Show, then two months over. Because the amount of space 
usually assigned to regular exhibitors had to be reduced due to the 
great influx of orchids additional space had to be developed. This 
was accomplished by opening up the basement. The additional 
expenditure incurred by this action, combined with the other 
expenses incidental to the enlarged exhibition, raised the cost 
considerably above the original budget. Nevertheless, there was a 
profit of $30,000 in spite of an attendance kept down somewhat 
by poor weather. 

Reporting again, this time as Chairman of the Library Com- 
mittee, Dr. Merrill stated that 351 books, supplemented by 145 
bound volumes of periodicals, had been placed on the shelves in 
the course of the year, an average year's acquisition. During the 
year 5,647 volumes were loaned — the largest number for one 
year in the history of the Society. Packages numbering 1,763 
were sent to addresses in thirty-seven states. In almost every 
instance the borrowers reimbursed the Society for the shipping 
charges. Dr. Merrill said a new estimate of $150,000 as the value 
of the Library had been made for insurance purposes. He con- 
sidered this estimate very conservative. 

In early October the Board of Associates of the Garden Club 
of America held its annual meeting in Boston. The Society had 
the privilege of entertaining this group at tea in the Trustees' 
Room. The members came from all over the United States and 
many of them had never before visited Horticultural Hall. 



FINANCIAL LOSSES AND YET A GOOD YEAR 155 

Much of what happened within the Society in 195 1 had to do 
with the magazine Horticulture. The continued increase in the 
cost of paper and most of the other items required in the printing 
and distribution of a national publication made an increase in the 
subscription rates, as well as the advertising rates, imperative. At 
least that was the considered opinion of the Publication Com- 
mittee, of which Dr. R. A. van Meter was Chairman, and it was 
in line with the action of other magazines. Therefore it was de- 
cided to raise the subscription price from $2.00 to $2.50, beginning 
with January 1952. This advance would require, of course, a 
larger payment from the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, the 
Horticultural Society of New York and the Michigan Horti- 
cultural Society, all of which had a working arrangement with the 
Massachusetts Society, whereby they obtained Horticulture for 
all their members at a discount. 

After prolonged negotiations it was found impossible to arrive 
at a rate of increase satisfactory to the Directors of the New York 
and Pennsylvania Societies, and both these organizations voted to 
withdraw from the pool. The Michigan Society remained. That 
decision meant a loss of about 7,000 subscriptions after January 1, 
1952. With that fact in mind, the Publication Committee imme- 
diately began an intensive circulation campaign and in the course 
of some months was to succeed in rilling the gap and, indeed, go- 
ing beyond it. It was a somewhat expensive undertaking, how- 
ever, or so it seemed at the moment. Actually much of the money 
expended was to come back in circulation returns, but it produced 
a loss for 195 1 of over $15,000. 

With conditions shaping themselves in this manner, the Trustees 
decided in October on another drastic move. They voted to in- 
crease the membership dues to four dollars, beginning with Jan- 
uary of 1952. This, however, was only the second increase that 
had been made since the Society was founded in 1829. That there 
would be a loss in members was realized but there was every 
reason to believe that it would be temporary. The Trustees were 
convinced that in any event there would be a net gain in member- 
ship revenue. This action meant, of course, that a second campaign 
would be started, this one for new members. The business office 
was to be a very busy place for the rest of the year. 



156 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

In October William Littlefield resigned as advertising manager 
to accept a position with Flower Grower in New York. He was 
succeeded by Richard Husselbee, a personable young college 
graduate with sufficient advertising experience to make him 
qualified for this position, and who immediately began making 
contacts throughout the country. 

The Trustees voted a contribution of $100 to a window box 
campaign being conducted by civic groups. They also voted to 
change the terms of the Albert C. Bur rage porch prize award by 
making it apply to a terrace as well as a porch and by eliminating 
the requirement that construction be of the current year. This was 
done, of course, with the approval of the Burrage family. It had 
been difficult to continue the award under the original terms. 

The necrology list contained the names of three men to whom 
the George Robert White medal of honor had been awarded — 
Dr. Hugh P. Baker, Lambertus C. Bobbink and Professor N. E. 
Hansen. In the list, too, was the name of a former Trustee, Fred 
A. Wilson, as well as that of Sidney Hoffman, long a florist active 
in the Spring Shows, and that of Mrs. Harriet R. Foote, noted 
rosarian. 

The George Robert White Medal of Honor for 1951 was 
awarded Sir William Wright Smith, Director of the Royal Botanic 
Garden in Edinburgh Scotland, and a very distinguished gentle- 
man, who had been a visitor and judge at one of the Spring 
Flower Shows in Boston. 

Professor Alex Laurie, head of the Department of Floriculture 
at Ohio State University, received the Thomas Roland Medal. 

The Jackson Dawson Memorial Medal went across the continent 
to Dr. Walter E. Lammerts in La Canada, California, a man 
whose work as a plant breeder embraced both fruits and flowers. 

The distinguished landscape architect Mrs. Beatrix Farrand of 
Bar Harbor, Maine, was awarded the Society's Gold Medal in 
recognition of her work, especially that on college campuses. At 
the same time the Trustees complimented her for the splendid 
collection of plants assembled by her in her Reef Point garden at 
Bar Harbor. 

The last of the widely distributed awards was made to Dr. 
Donald Forsha Jones, head of the Department of Genetics at the 



FINANCIAL LOSSES AND YET A GOOD YEAR 157 

Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station — a Gold Medal for 
his work in the hybridization of corn. 

Oliver Wolcott, Chairman, announced nine awards by the Com- 
mittee on Gardens, with the approval of the Trustees, as follows : 

The Society's Gold Medal to Mr. and Mrs. R. E. Danielson of 
Groton, "where rolling hills amid great trees command from a 
ridge a wide sweep of hills." This award was for a small formal 
garden, a retaining wall planted with alpines, a well-designed cut- 
ting garden and a swimming pool edged with lawn set in an oval 
of trees and shrubs. "An example of how nature can be enhanced 
by horticulture." 

The Society's Gold Medal to Mrs. Aldus Higgins of Worcester 
"where walls and yew hedges enclosing gardens of intimate charm, 
an upward-stretching vista of turf between herbaceous borders, 
sloping lawns and fine trees make a beautiful setting in perfect 
proportion for the handsome Tudor house." 

The Society's Silver Medal to Mrs. H. P. Emery, Worcester, 
"for a place of old-fashioned charm where rambling walks lead 
along a pond, to a slope of superb laurel, and down the outlet 
brook, all planted with taste and great horticultural success. 
Notable are the cutting garden, a sunken garden in part of the 
foundation of an old barn with a pergola covered with vines, the 
interesting assortment of ground covers, and above all the evidence 
of years of love by a born horticulturist." 

The Society's Bronze Medal to Mr. and Mrs. Mitchell Johnson, 
Andover, "for their attractive place stretching back from the 
village street to which superb ancient trees, well placed shrubs and 
the rolling slopes of the lawn give an atmosphere of remoteness 
and space." 

The Albert C. Burrage Porch Fund Medal was awarded to Mr. 
and Mrs, Harold S. Ross of Hingham, "for an unusual terrace 
developed in conjunction with an informal group of roses and an 
old wisteria vine. The design of the terrace is well balanced, pleas- 
ing and restful. Unusual skill has been used in locating a pleasant 
outdoor living room which on one side overlooks a steep hillside 
containing plants of a wide variety and on the other a small, well- 
designed formal garden." 

The Society's Garden Certificate to Sylvania Electric Products, 



158 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

Inc., 60 Boston Street, Salem, "for a planting of trees and shrubs 
at its Loring Avenue plant in Salem that surrounds a factory with 
greenery and bloom. A proof that efficiency can be joined with 
beauty." 

Before the close of the year the Trustees voted to accept the 
many trophies and medals which had been won by Peter Fisher, 
a widely known florist and the man who originated the famous 
Lawson carnation. Mr. Fisher had passed away and it was the 
wish of his daughter, Mrs. Ethel Fisher Clapp, that the Society 
should possess his trophies and medals. 

By unanimous vote the employes at Horticultural Hall took 
advantage of a change in the law in 195 1 which made them eligible 
for social security. 

With the income from the Spring Show about $18,000 less than 
in the previous year, with a Horticulture loss of $18,292.46, with 
the income from investments down about $3,000, with the rentals 
less by $3,000. and with most expenses up, it was easy to see 
why this had to be set down as a poor year. However, Mr. 
Buttrick, the Treasurer, was in no way disturbed. The Society 
was in a sound financial condition, he said, and he was confident 
that the succeeding year would show black instead of red figures. 
His confidence was justified, as will be seen. 



1952— A SUCCESSFUL SHOW PROVIDES 
FOR NEEDED IMPROVEMENTS 

THE year 1952 opened on a note of economy, in view of 
the previous year's figures, but then a highly successful 
Spring Flower Show in March made it possible for the 
Society to proceed with much needed improvements in the fifty- 
year-old building. After the installation of Edison steam heat in 
1950 the old boilers had been kept in use for the burning of 
rubbish, great amounts of which collect daily but particularly 
after exhibitions and rummage sales. The point had been reached, 
however, where these boilers could not be used for any purpose 
without expensive repairs. Consequently it was decided to remove 
them and provide a modern incinerator by which to dispose of 
accumulating trash. 

This was a difficult and dirty undertaking, for the boilers had 
been set up with the old-fashioned, enduring workmanship which 
characterizes the whole building. When the work had been finished, 
however, the Society found itself with another large room, provid- 
ing greatly improved facilities for the janitors. Certain repairs on 
the tall chimney were demanded before the incinerator could be 
installed, but in the end the Society had acquired up-to-date equip- 
ment making for both economy and efficiency. 

A new composition floor was laid in the Lecture Hall, another 
needed improvement, as this floor had been in poor condition for 
many years, partly because of water which had escaped from 
exhibits during flower shows. The new floor would not suffer 
from such accidents. The small Exhibition Hall and the lower 
Lecture Hall were given sound-proof ceilings, thus remedying 
acoustic faults which had been the subject of much criticism. The 
monitor section of the roof over the large Exhibition Hall was 
largely reconstructed and much of the glass replaced, preventing 
further leaks from that source. 



160 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

Now for the Show which made this work possible. Springtime 
in New England was the theme of the Show and Grand Hall at 
Mechanics Building was transformed into a typical New England 
scene, with hillside planting, ledge outcroppings and lovely vistas 
to the sea. Much emphasis was placed on conservation, with the 
State Department of Conservation cooperating, but there were 
several nostalgic exhibits such as a Cape Cod cottage with a color- 
ful garden set up by Harold Stevenson for Bay State Nurseries. 
The Women's Exhibition Committee of the Society laid out a 
series of small gardens replete with practical suggestions. The 
basement was opened for exhibits as well as trade space, and the 
Middlesex County beekeepers presented an extensive and interest- 
ing display, using live bees. 

Alexander Heimlich won the President's Cup with a North 
Shore rock garden. Breck's of Boston was awarded the Gold 
Medal Certificate of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society and 
at the end of the year was to receive the Albert C. Burrage Gold 
Vase for its informal garden, glorious with bulbs, as having 
been the most outstanding exhibit in any of the shows. The New 
York Society's Gold Medal went to Harlan P. Kelsey, Inc. and 
the Bulkley Medal of the Garden Club of America to F. I. Carter 
and Sons for an exhibit of cacti and succulents. 

The George Holiday Memorial Prize was awarded George 
Hewitt for a group of clivias, while the Antoine Leuthy prize 
went to Mr. and Mrs. Robert Stone, one of several prizes awarded 
their acacia exhibit. Two cups were won by the Junior League 
Garden Club for a living-terrace exhibit, one from the Beacon 
Hill Garden Club and one from Mrs. John S. Ames. Mrs. Archi- 
bald I. Feinberg of Newton won the John Taylor Arms award 
for flower arrangements. A Silver Platter offered by the American 
Orchid Society was awarded Mrs. Edwin S. Webster for a group 
of orchids. 

There was a largely increased attendance at this show — 120,894. 
The actual increase over the previous year was 11,004, but no 
records were broken. There was one rainy day. 

There was a large attendance also at one of the smaller shows, 
the Rose and Peony Show in June. Being held at the time of the 
national convention of the Men's Garden Clubs of America, many 



NEEDED IMPROVEMENTS MADE POSSIBLE 161 

of the visitors came up from the Sheraton-Plaza Hotel to inspect 
the exhibits and look over the building. They seemed much im- 
pressed. The Society cooperated with the Men's Garden Club of 
Boston in making the convention the success it proved to be, with 
the President, the Secretary and other members on the committee. 

The 1952 Exhibition of the Products of Children's Gardens 
came closer to perfection perhaps than any other Children's Show 
ever held by the Society. The young gardeners and exhibitors 
displayed their skill both in the quality of the products grown 
and in showmanship. The large exhibit of the school garden on 
the Cummings estate in Woburn was of such high quality and so 
well done that the judges awarded it a Gold Medal, the first ever 
to be awarded at a Children's Show. "This exhibit would hold 
its own with professional exhibits in any Show," was the com- 
ment of Ernest Borowski, one of the judges. 

At the annual meeting in May, Mr. Ames, the President, men- 
tioned that the Society would observe its 125th anniversary in 
two years and briefly reviewed its growth and expansion. In his 
report as Executive Secretary Mr. Nehrling stated that Mr. Ames 
had given the Society for its Library nine beautifully illustrated 
volumes on the fruits of France and a series of works on the 
cultivated trees and shrubs of France. In addition the Society 
had received from Jan de Graaff of Gresham, Oregon, a collec- 
tion of historic manuscripts on lilies. 

Mr. Nehrling reported that George Taloumis, associate editor 
of Horticulture, was on a four-months leave of absence. He visited 
European countries on half pay to inspect nurseries and bulb 
farms and obtain information on current trends across the water. 
Miss Brenda Newton had been transferred from the Library to 
the publication department for the duration of Mr. Taloumis' 
absence. It was necessary also to report the death in Italy of 
James Wood, who for many years had done the construction work 
at the Spring Flower Shows, a very able man. 

Mr. Nehrling noted that Horticulture would observe its 50th 
anniversary in 1954, coincidentally with the 125th anniversary of 
the Society. He reported that Mr. Foley had represented the So- 
ciety at the first Soil Conditioner Conference in New York and 
that Miss Manks had visited the Bailey Hortorium at Cornell Uni- 



1 62 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

versity and the U. S. Department of Agriculture's Library in 
Washington to check the catalogue collections in those institu- 
tions. He said that those two collections with the one in Horticul- 
tural Hall were the most complete in the country. 

Mr. Nehrling himself represented the Society at the Thirteenth 
International Horticultural Congress held in London in September 
of 1952. Many of the world's research workers were present to 
give their reports and Mr. Nehrling brought back a complete set 
of these reports for the Society's Library. He was an advisory 
member of a committee on a proposed code of nomenclature for 
cultivated plants, which became one of the most important subdi- 
visions of the Congress. 

Mr. Nehrling made special mention of the courses in flower 
arrangement which continued to be conducted by Mrs. Arthur P. 
Teele, with no decrease of interest on the part of her pupils after 
many years of this work. The courses were open to members of 
the Society without charge, but non-members were asked to pay 
a small fee. Mrs. James Perkins was added to the Board of Trus- 
tees at the 1952 annual meeting. 

Late in the year five awards were made by the Committee on 
Special Medals, with Harold S. Ross as Chairman. The coveted 
George Robert White Medal of Honor was bestowed on Dr. Albert 
Francis Blakeslee, Professor of Botany and Director of the Genet- 
ics Experiment Station at Smith College, Northampton, Mass. 
Dr. Blakeslee, long considered one of the nation's leading genet- 
icists, pioneered in the use of colchicine in his work with the 
familiar Black-eyed Susan and the Datura. 

The Jackson Dawson Medal for skill in the science and prac- 
tice of hybridization and in propagation of hardy plants was 
awarded to Arie F. den Boer, Superintendent of Water Works 
Park in Des Moines, Iowa, for his outstanding work with hybrid 
crabapples. 

Dr. Victor A. Tiedjens of Marion, Ohio, formerly Director of 
the Virginia Truck Experiment Station, was awarded the Thomas 
Roland Medal for skill in hydroponics. He was a pioneer in 
growing plants in chemical solutions. 

To Fred Edmunds, Curator of the International Rose Test Gar- 



NEEDED IMPROVEMENTS MADE POSSIBLE 163 

den in Portland, Oregon, went the Gold Medal of the Society for 
his work in behalf of better roses. 

Another medal of the Horticultural Society was awarded Mrs. 
Bessie Raymond Buxton of Peabody. Known throughout this 
country and Europe for her knowledge of begonias, Mrs. Buxton 
had recently completed a monumental task in compiling a list of 
begonia species, with the names of their introducers, a total of 
10,000 kinds. This list had been given to the Society. Mrs. Buxton 
was prominent in other fields, too, having been the first Corre- 
sponding Secretary of the Garden Club Federation of Massachu- 
setts and the National Council of State Garden Clubs. 

The Garden Committee under the chairmanship of Oliver Wol- 
cott was very active in 1952, making no less than ten awards, al- 
though none of them included the H. H. Hunnewell Medal for 
an estate of three acres or more. The awards, approved by the 
Trustees, were as follows: 

The Society's Gold Medal to Mrs. George Lewis, Jr., Sher- 
born — "a place created by her and her late husband (a fine horti- 
culturist and a much-missed vice president of this Society) which 
has acquired the beauty of age; an entrance court of great dis- 
tinction, an allee commanding a view up the Charles River, a 
circular lawn rimmed with trees and shrubs, and a garden that, in 
the autumn, is a pastel of asters and artemisia." 

The Society's Gold Medal to Mr. and Mrs. Henry D. Tudor, 
Cambridge "a place whose gardens and summer houses perpetuate 
the classic Federal Age of New England's architectural flowering." 

The Society's Silver Medal to Mr. and Mrs. Albert C. Burrage, 
Candlewood Farm, Ipswich — "a terrace and green garden of 
hedges with vistas over rolling open and into woods, never for- 
getting the model vegetable garden from which so many have 
derived instruction and stimulation." 

The Society's Silver Medal to Mr. and Mrs. Don S. Greer, Win- 
chester — "the lawns, the alpine wall, the pool and the plantings of 
shrubs and trees well become the house and give to its owners an 
outlook of great beauty." 

The Society's Silver Medal to Miss Louisa and Mr. Francis 
W. Hunnewell, Wellesley — "lawns sloping to a field that rolls 



1 64 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

between great trees, many well-grown and interesting shrubs, and 
a most attractive wild garden surrounding a pool." 

The Society's Bronze Medal to Reverend and Mrs. Harold G. 
Arnold, West Roxbury — "superb old trees and a garden of much 
charm create an oasis of peace not far from an area where the 
bulldozer has done its worst." 

The Society's Bronze Medal to Miss Margaret Cummings, 
Topsfield — "a house on its elm-shaded terrace with an old-fash- 
ioned garden, a guest house also with its garden, and a well- 
planted wood path to a view of the Ipswich River." 

The Society's Garden Certificate to the Misses Aimee and Rosa- 
mond Lamb, Milton — "for an old place of great dignity, notable 
for monumental wisteria and rhododendrons, many of them of 
great age." 

The Society's Garden Certificate to Mr. and Mrs. Ben: P. P. 
Moseley, Ipswich — "for their extraordinary collection of rhodo- 
dendron, grown with great skill, which yearly attracts both horti- 
cultural experts and amateurs of floral beauty." 

The Albert C. Burrage Porch Fund Medal to Mrs. Chester N. 
Greenough of Belmont "for a skillfully-designed terrace which 
overlooks a garden planted with flowering shrubs, trees and 
roses, to provide a vista of year-round beauty." 

Spring and Winter lectures covered a wide range with many 
important speakers. The Winter lectures were correlated under 
the title "Travel With Us Around the World." "A Botanist in 
Your Grocery Store" by Dr. Richard A. Howard, head of the 
department of botany at the University of Connecticut, drew a 
particularly large audience. 1 

A new small and very practical book, "Your Guide to a 
Greener Lawn," by Geoffrey S. Cornish, published by the So- 
ciety, was very well received, the distribution soon going beyond 
the 10,000 mark. 

In the course of the year the Society suffered a severe loss in 
the death of George Lewis, Jr., a Vice President and Assistant 
Treasurer, who was killed when thrown from a horse. Mr. Lewis 
had been an active member of the Board of Trustees, serving on 
several committees. Other names appearing in the necrology list 

x The next year Dr. Howard became Director of the Arnold Arboretum. 



NEEDED IMPROVEMENTS MADE POSSIBLE 165 

were those of Robert Pyle, long one of the country's best known 
rosarians; E. Allan Peirce, a rose grower who had been an ex- 
hibitor for many years; Miss Laura G. Hills, distinguished as a 
painter of floral subjects, and John W. Queen, who had long 
handled the advertising at the Spring Exhibitions. 

In November Mrs. Ida A. Perkins resigned as Executive Secre- 
tary of the Benevolent Fraternity Fruit and Flower Mission, the 
work of which was closely allied with that of the Society. She was 
succeeded by Mrs. Esther L. Camfield. 

Mr. Buttrick's reassuring words at the beginning of the year 
were shown, when the year was over, to have been entirely justi- 
fied. The red of 195 1 had been replaced by black, even though 
a fairly large sum had been expended for repairs and renovations 
and for extending the circulation of Horticulture. Expressed in 
figures, the receipts totalled $175,299.67, with a net income 
amounting to $4,407.93. The Treasurer was not quite as opti- 
mistic in respect to 1953 and his judgment was remarkably keen, 
as has been and will be seen. 



1953— SERIOUS PROBLEMS ARE MET 
WITH BOLD DECISIONS 

MOMENTOUS decisions were to be made in 1953 and 
under difficult circumstances. However, they did not 
come until after the Spring Exhibition and as that Ex- 
hibition had something to do with them, it will be considered first 
and after that the annual meeting. 

Golden Gardens was the theme of the Spring Show and the 
golden note was carried out with marked effectiveness, especially 
in the dramatic manner in which the acacias staged by Mr. and 
Mrs. Robert Stone were displayed. Plantings of azaleas and 
perennials by Weston Nurseries were flanked by two long 
walls in Grand Hall. The famous Kurume azaleas from the green- 
houses of Mr. and Mrs. John S. Ames were used with skill and 
taste to complete the focal point on the stage, which was treated 
as a formal garden. A circular fountain and a background of 
flowering trees were provided by Bartlett Gardens. "Gardening 
Around the Year" was the appropriate keynote for a series of 
little gardens planned by the Women's Exhibitions Committee 
under the direction of Mrs. John Cunningham. 

The President's Cup was awarded to Weston Nurseries for 
formal borders, which featured trees, shrubs and other plants in 
Grand Hall as noted above. Mr. and Mrs. Robert Stone of Marion 
won the Gold Medal of the Horticultural Society of New York for 
their part in the stage display in addition to the Antoine Leuthy 
prize and the Gold Medal of the Society. A garden of roses and 
clematis set up with the skill always shown by Albert Hulley of 
Middleboro was awarded the Gold Medal of the Pennsylvania 
Horticultural Society, while the Department of Agriculture's 
trophy went to Johnson Brothers, Inc. of Woburn for a rose ex- 
hibit. An interesting and educational pruning exhibit staged by 
the Arnold Arboretum was awarded the Bulkley Medal of the 



SERIOUS PROBLEMS AND BOLD DECISIONS 167 

Garden Club of America. The attendance at the Spring Show was 
121,046, which was 152 more than in 1952. The income from the 
Show was $55,331.53- 

Through the initiative of Mr. Nehrling and the able presenta- 
tion of the matter by legal counsel sent to Washington, a decision 
had been obtained which did away with the tax on admissions to 
the Society's Shows. This added materially to the income from the 
Shows and freed the Society from much paper work. Following 
this Society's example, the New York Flower Show obtained a 
similar exemption. The grounds for this action were found, of 
course, in the fact that the receipts from the Shows are used for 
educational purposes. 

At the annual meeting in May, held at the time of the Daffodil 
Show, the President, Mr. Ames, regretfully reported the resigna- 
tion of two active and valued Trustees, Mrs. S. V. R. Crosby and 
Ray M. Koon. Said Mr. Ames of Mrs. Crosby, "She has served 
our Society as a Trustee for a period of thirty-one years. She 
has given generously of her wise counsel and has manifested un- 
usual interest in all our activities." Of Professor Koon he said, 
"He has devoted himself faithfully to the many tasks assigned 
him as a member of the Board." 

The President acknowledged the receipt of an excellent por- 
trait of Richard M. Saltonstall, President of the Society from 
19 1 6 to 19 1 8. It was copied by H. H. Brooks from an oil paint- 
ing by Frank Benson hanging in the Saltonstall homestead. With 
this gift the Society had an unbroken series of portraits of all its 
Presidents to the time John S. Ames took office, with two excep- 
tions. The portrait of William Gray, Jr. was destroyed by fire in 
1888. Francis Parkman is represented by a bust. 

Mr. Ames also acknowledged the gift of 120 shares of General 
Electric Stock from Mrs. Henry D. Tudor, the proceeds to be 
used for purchasing milk for the children who participate in the 
school garden program of the city of Boston. Mr. Ames said the 
Society had received $2,500 from the estate of Stillman Benway, 
this amount to be added to the Society's general fund. 

In his report as Executive Secretary Mr. Nehrling spoke of 
plans for observing the 125th anniversary of the Society in 1954, 
along with the 50th birthday of the magazine Horticulture. The 



1 68 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

Spring Flower Show would be keyed to the anniversary, he said, 
the Society's history would be brought up to date, there would be 
an anniversary edition of Horticulture and other features of an 
extensive program would be developed. He felt that more should 
be known about this Society, the oldest incorporated organization 
of the kind in the country and by far the largest. 

Harold D. Stevenson reported for the Committee on Exhibi- 
tions, revealing that there had been a total attendance of 148,786 
at the eight shows of the fiscal year, indicating the large number 
of people being reached by the Society. 

An exhibit of apples by Parker Brothers of Fiskdale, Mass. at 
the Harvest Show brought the fact to mind that the Parkers had 
been exhibiting in Horticultural Hall since 1929, setting a record 
for consistent support unequaled by any other exhibitor at this 
Show. 

Dr. Elmer D. Merrill in his final report as Chairman of the 
Library Committee said he did not want that report to be inter- 
preted as pessimistic, although it might sound so. In truth, it 
was, in places, even critical, although the Chairman hastened to 
add that his real purpose was to indicate how and where reduc- 
tions could be made if at some time it might be necessary to make 
them. He said that the unit cost of recataloguing had been slightly 
in excess of one dollar per volume and that the cataloguing of 
several thousand sets of periodicals had only recently been com- 
menced. He believed that every effort should be made to cut 
corners, and added, "One suspects that the recataloguing project 
was rather lightly taken up and approved ten or more years ago 
without full realization of what was involved, what the total cost 
might be and how long the task would be continued." He thought 
too much attention was given the repairing of old volumes but 
agreed with a decision to eliminate certain unnecessary sets of 
periodicals, thus adding some additional shelf room. He pointed 
out, however, that with about 500 books being added each year, 
the shelf footage released would not last long. The Library had, 
he said, 31,468 volumes, making it by far the largest Library of 
the kind maintained by any similar society in the country. Yet he 
had come to the conclusion that the maintenance cost per volume 



SERIOUS PROBLEMS AND BOLD DECISIONS 169 

was too large, perhaps because an attempt was being made to 
cover too many fields. 1 

At this annual meeting Dr. Ralph A. Van Meter was elected 
a Vice President. Harold D. Stevenson, Dr. Donald Wyman and 
Mrs. Edwin S. Webster were added to the Board of Trustees. 
Oliver Wolcott was made Assistant Treasurer. 

The reorganized Board was immediately called upon to con- 
sider the over-all financial situation of the Society and to make 
some far-reaching decisions. The Spring Show had drawn a very 
large attendance, but the net proceeds were less than at some 
previous Shows, as higher rent, higher insurance charges and in- 
creased prize money had made the Show cost more. Repairs on 
the exterior of Horticultural Hall could no longer be safely post- 
poned and the estimated cost ran to about $16,000. Pointing of 
the bricks on the front and two end walls was required and an 
examination of the decorative features was imperative. Horticul- 
ture was certain to have a deficit because of an expansion policy 
on which the Publication Committee had decided. 

The Society's membership dues had been increased to four 
dollars in 195 1 and the number of members had dropped by 1,200. 
However, the receipts from dues had become greater in spite of 
this fact. The subscription price of Horticulture had been raised 
in 195 1 also, but an extensive circulation campaign had served to 
maintain the subscription level, although at considerable expense. 

After weighing all these facts carefully and at length, the 
Trustees decided on bold and aggressive action. They voted to 
again raise the dues, this time to five dollars, the limit under the 
amended charter, and to make another increase in the price of 
Horticulture — three dollars a year by subscription and thirty-five 
cents for a single copy. The new rates were to go into effect Jan- 
uary 1, 1954. It was believed that the increase from dues would 
more than compensate for any loss in members which might result 
from this action even in the first year, and that this revenue would 
continue to increase as the membership began to climb again. 
The new dues were the same as those of the Pennsylvania Horti- 

1 Later in the year the new Chairman of the Library Committee, Albert C. 
Burrage, made a report to the Trustees which was more optimistic. 



170 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

cultural Society and less than those of the Horticultural Society 
of New York. What the Society offered in exhibitions, publica- 
tions, free information and unparalleled library service made a 
bargain package not likely to be overlooked by garden lovers. 

In its plans for the expansion of Horticulture the Committee 
on Publications presented the Trustees a daring, long-range pro- 
gram which envisaged a type of magazine never before known 
in the horticultural field and one which, it was believed, would 
have an irresistible appeal. Actually, the magazine appeared in 
its new form in October and was warmly received. It had eight 
full pages in color done by a marvelous color process perfected by 
the W. A. Krueger Company of Milwaukee, which printed the 
color section. It was already evident by the end of the year that 
the percentage of renewals had materially increased. 

When the Society acquired the magazine in 1924 it was for one 
purpose — to build up the membership and increase the influence 
of the Society itself. That was still its mission, and there was no 
thought of making it a commercial enterprise. Yet the more people 
it could reach, the greater its opportunities would be to spread the 
gospel of gardening and to aid the Society in its endeavor to be 
of greater service. Thus the Trustees made memorable decisions, 
with the year ahead, the anniversary year, to test their wisdom. 

In the Summer Dr. Merrill presented his resignation as a mem- 
ber of the Board because of ill health, and it was accepted with 
expressions of deep regret. He had served as a Trustee since 1938 
and had been active as Chairman of the Committee on Exhibi- 
tions and Chairman of the Library Committee, much of the time 
holding these important positions concurrently. 

At the close of the year the Trustees announced a series of 
awards as recommended by various committees. The Albert C. 
Burrage Gold Vase for the most outstanding exhibit in any of 
the Society's exhibitions held during the year 1953 was awarded to 
Mrs. Edwin S. Webster of Chestnut Hill, for an outstanding ex- 
hibit of chrysanthemums staged at the 1953 Chrysanthemum 
Show. Albert C. Burrage was Chairman of the committee recom- 
mending this award. 

Oliver Wolcott was Chairman of the Committee on Gardens 
which recommended the following awards: 



SERIOUS PROBLEMS AND BOLD DECISIONS 171 

A Garden Certificate to Andover Inn, Andover, "for lawns and 
an old-fashioned garden where its guests may find seclusion, and 
refreshment for the spirit." 

A Garden Certificate to The First Church of Christ Scientist, 
in Boston, "for a garden whose plantings of trees and shrubs, 
whose borders in constant bloom, and whose well-kept turf con- 
tribute beauty to the city at all seasons." 

A Garden Certificate to Stowaway Sweets, Marblehead, "for 
a well-kept garden and plantings that surround the old house con- 
taining the candy shop. An instance where commerce has beau- 
tified its neighborhood." 

A Bronze Medal to Mrs. Grace Burnham, Marblehead, "a gar- 
den on ledges overlooking the harbor, showing by its collection 
of well-grown shrubs, vines, and flowers a lifetime of horticultural 
skill." 

A Bronze Medal to Mr. and Mrs. Louis H. Salvage, Tedesco 
Point, Swampscott, "a garden of roses and perennials, a lawn slop- 
ing to the sea, an effectively planted ledge and great trees, all 
with an unusual perfection of maintenance." 

A Bronze Medal to Mr. and Mrs. Arthur S. Ward, Marblehead, 
"whose hard work and love of the earth have made an unpromising 
site teem with plantings that give privacy of great charm." 

A Silver Medal, to Dr. Allen C. Brailey, Newton Highlands. "A 
steep hillside terraced, where paths of shavings lead down among 
unusual plantings of wild flowers and restful nooks, testify to the 
owner's taste and energy and give much pleasure to the guest." 

A Silver Medal to Mr. and Mrs. Richard S. Humphrey, Brook- 
line. "On one side lawns, sloping to a brook and rising beyond to 
a coppice, and on the other a great ledge, enclose the house with 
its terrace of flowers and espaliered trees." 

A Silver Medal to Mr. and Mrs. Clifford C. Walker, Newton. 
"Their neighborliness has made of the bordering public sidewalk 
and their own retaining wall a path of beauty and horticultural 
education for the passer-by, where birches shade the perfectly 
kept gravel edged with lawn, and the sloping wall down which 
alpines tumble amid pockets of flowers." 

A Gold Medal to Mrs. Arthur Adams, Dover. "A wild pool with 
lawns rising to the house and with a circling path through its 



172 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

wooded background planted with a wide assortment of native 
flowers and ground covers, an arbor of espaliered fruit trees in a 
garden that is itself enclosed with fruit espaliered in various forms, 
and the many flowering trees and shrubs, combine to convey the 
epitome of spring." 2 

Again the H. H. Hunnewell Medal for an estate of three acres 
or more was omitted. 

Harold S. Ross was Chairman of the Committee on Special 
Medals, the report of which provided for awards as follows : 

The George Robert White Medal of Honor to Edward I. Far- 
rington of Weymouth Heights, "for a lifetime of service as ad- 
ministrator, counselor, editor and author." Mr. Farrington was 
Secretary of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society for twenty- 
three years. He established Horticulture as an amateur publica- 
tion and was instrumental in organizing the Garden Club Federa- 
tion of Massachusetts. The citation read, "During his long and 
distinguished period of service in various horticultural endeavors 
he has made a notable contribution to the advancement of Amer- 
ican horticulture." 

The Jackson Dawson Medal to Francis Meilland, Cap d'Anti- 
bes, France, for the outstanding varieties of roses which he had 
developed over a period of years, including Peace, which became 
a top favorite over a large part of the world in less than ten 
years. 

The Thomas Roland Medal to Arnold Davis, Director of the 
Cleveland (Ohio) Garden Center. Mr. Davis was cited as a dis- 
tinguished "bellwether" who had developed new interest in and 
expanded the field of horticulture. 

The Society's large Gold Medal to Professor Ray M. Koon, 
retiring Director of the Waltham Field Station of the University 
of Massachusetts. Professor Koon was cited as having made an 
outstanding contribution by building and broadening the service 
rendered by the Waltham station. 

The Society's large Gold Medal to Joseph J. Lane of New York 
City. "Through his work with the distinguished magazine House 
and Garden" the citation read, "he has rendered invaluable serv- 

3 This was the second time a medal had been awarded for the excellence of the 
Adams Estate. 



SERIOUS PROBLEMS AND BOLD DECISIONS 173 

ice to maintain high standards in the field of horticultural adver- 
tising and has become recognized as a roving ambassador of good- 
will throughout America." This probably was the first time that 
an honor of this kind had been paid a man in the advertising field 
by any horticultural society. 

Among the activities of the year was a television program over 
WBZ-TV by Miss Brenda Newton. Miss Newton, formerly an 
assistant to the Librarian, had been transferred to the publication 
department and made an associate editor of Horticulture. George 
Taloumis, another member of the staff, became a weekly con- 
tributor to the Boston Sunday Globe. 

Mr. Nehrling was called upon to act as chairman of several 
committees on horticultural awards. He attended the annual con- 
vention of the Men's Garden Clubs of America in Memphis, 
Tenn., at which time he was elected to the Board of Directors. He 
acted as Chairman of the Committee on Garden Club Publica- 
tions. 

The end of the year brought confirmation of the Treasurer's 
forecast — there was a deficit in contrast to the profit of the pre- 
vious year. The 5 3 -year-old building had reached a point at which 
somewhat costly repairs were needed, although not indicating any 
structural weakness in this remarkably well-built edifice. The need 
of inspecting the ornaments at the top of the Hall became appar- 
ent when several of them were found to be loose. It is probable 
that they would have fallen in a short time, perhaps with dis- 
astrous consequences. The deficit resulted in part from the cam- 
paign inaugurated to expand and improve the magazine Horticul- 
ture, thus increasing both its value and its circulation. 



1954— ANOTHER ANNIVERSARY AND 
A NOVEL CELEBRATION 

INTEREST at the beginning of 1954 centered on the celebra- 
tion of the Society's 125th anniversary, with a special com- 
mittee to develop a program to extend throughout the year. 
Seth L. Kelsey was made Chairman of this committee, the other 
members being Harold S. Ross, Mrs. William A. Parker, Mrs. 
John S. Ames, Mrs. Irving C. Wright, Mrs. John Cunningham, 
Mrs. Roger S. Warner, Ernest Borowski, Aubrey B. Butler, Dr. 
Donald Wyman and George Taloumis. The cooperation of the 
Exhibition Committee was immediately sought, with the result 
that the Spring Show had the anniversary as its theme. Harold 
Stevenson, landscape architect and a member of the Board of 
Trustees, was given the task of making an overall plan for Grand 
Hall and achieved a masterpiece. 

A replica of the Society's first Horticultural Hall occupied the 
stage. It was flanked on one side by a bandstand where a brass 
band played a series of concerts throughout the week. Opposite, a 
gay flower market filled with superb blooms added a dashing note 
of color. In the center of the grass plot, the seal of the Massachu- 
setts Horticultural Society was sculptured using 16,000 carpet 
bedding plants. 

Seth L. Kelsey of the Kelsey-Highlands Nursery, Henry Buell 
of the Boston Park Department, together with Mr. and Mrs. Max 
Fishelson executed this section. 

The center of the hall was occupied by an extensive formal gar- 
den bordered with boxwood. Herbs were used effectively around 
the well-head in the center, and bright pink geraniums provided 
an abundance of color. This garden was the work of Woodbury 
Bartlett of the Bartlett Gardens, Hamilton. 

Flanking the left wall was a brick facade of a Boston mer- 



ANOTHER ANNIVERSARY IS CELEBRATED 175 

chant's home complete with a dooryard garden filled with hardy- 
perennials, staged by Weston Nurseries of Weston. 

Along the opposite wall, a garrison-type, colonial house and 
carriage shed surrounded by a planting of annuals, perennials and 
madonna lilies together with many pungent herbs was done by 
John Russell of Dedham for Breck's of Boston. 

To complete the picture, Mr. Stevenson developed a replica of 
the Boston waterfront of a century and a quarter ago, a unique 
and highly interesting exhibit. 

Mr. Stevenson's efforts won him a special Gold Medal award 
from the magazine Horticulture. This was called a 50th Anni- 
versary Medal, its significance lying in the fact that the magazine 
was also observing an anniversary, having reached its 50th birth- 
day. Mr. Stevenson also received a Gold Medal from the Society. 

The Grand Hall display was, of course, only one feature of the 
Show, all the other halls and the basement being filled with ex- 
hibits. The Women's Exhibition Committee set up a series of 
delightful little gardens. Many visitors stopped Mr. Nehrling to 
say that they considered this the most pleasing Show that they 
remembered. Indeed, the consensus of opinion seemed to be that 
it ranked with the best in the Society's history. 

An unusual award at the Show was made when the Garden Club 
of America decided to give its Sarah Todd Bulkley Medal to the 
Society itself for its unique and convincing exhibit in Grand Hall. 
Previously this Medal had gone only to individuals. The new 
Beatrix Farrand Silver Bowl was awarded Mr. and Mrs. John 
S. Ames for an azalea garden which for design and quality of 
material has seldom if ever been equalled. The Gold Medal of 
the Horticultural Society of New York also went to Mr. and Mrs. 
Ames. 

Alexander Heimlich again set up one of the splendid rock gar- 
dens for which he is noted and won the President's Cup. Mr. and 
Mrs. Robert G. Stone of Marion were awarded the Gold Medal of 
the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society for their glorious acacias. 
The Antoine Leuthy prize went to the North Shore Horticultural 
Society for a tropical garden, while the Department of Agricul- 
ture's trophy was awarded to Butler & Ullman for a rose garden. 



176 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

Another very special award was that of the 125th Anniversary 
Gold Medal of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society to the 
Women's Exhibition Committee, for their very attractive exhibit 
in Exhibition Hall. The 1954 Chairman of this very active group 
was Mrs. Stephen Whealand. 

The attendance at this Show was 126,933, a g am of 5,887 over 
the previous year. There was a profit of $52,158.74. 

At the annual meeting the first Monday in May in connection 
with an excellent Daffodil Show Mr. Ames made a dignified 
address after which much interesting information was given by the 
Executive Secretary and various chairmen. Mr. Nehrling said that 
2,553 new members had been added to the Society, making a 
total of over 14,000. He spoke of the enthusiastic letters received 
from subscribers after the first appearance of Horticulture in 
color, and expressed his belief that the additional cost was justi- 
fied. He mentioned a new book by Dr. Clement Gray Bowers on 
"Winter Hardy Rhododendrons" which the Society had just 
published and which was selling well. Mr. Nehrling revealed that 
the author had been his student at Cornell. The manuscript for 
this book was an anniversary gift by the author. It was stated also 
that 150,000 copies of the Society's book "The Gardener's 
Almanac" had been distributed, the eleventh edition having 
recently been published. All the Winter lectures had been well 
attended, Mr. Nehrling said, but there had been more than usual 
interest in the one by Lady Inchiquin of County Clare on "Irish 
Homes and Gardens." 

In his report as Chairman of the Library Committee Mr. Bur- 
rage disclosed that the recataloguing of the library had been 
completed. This fact was a cause of gratification, for the task had 
been a long and expensive one, having been begun in 1939. The 
cost was $38, 702. 1 

Mr. Burrage reported that 6,100 books were borrowed in 1953, 
a larger number than ever before, and yet not a great number 
when compared with the Society's membership of over 14,000. An 
analysis showed that three-fourths of this number went to hobby 
gardeners, with the remaining fourth borrowed by professionals. It 

x As a matter of precaution the catalogue cards have been copied on microfilm 
and these greatly reduced copies stored in a bank vault. 



ANOTHER ANNIVERSARY IS CELEBRATED 177 

was stated that the Albert C. Burrage collection of rare old books 
and prints, received from the father of the present Chairman, was 
being catalogued and made available. A rearrangement of the 
Trustees' room provided an excellent location for this collection. 

In this room a case will be found which contains almost all the 
192 volumes listed in the Society's first catalogue, issued in 1831. 
They are in excellent physical condition. 

Henry G. Wendler read a stimulating report in behalf of the 
Committee on the Exhibition of the Products of Children's Gar- 
dens. He called the 1953 Show one that came close to perfection, 
and this in spite of a cold season. An exhibit labeled "Corn is 
King" was remarkable for its educational value and received the 
Society's Bronze Medal as well as a first prize. Altogether the 
Boston School Department had 165 prize-winning entries. The 4-H 
Club exhibits in the Lecture Hall were equally commendable. 
In these times, when much is written about juvenile problems, 
such a report was felt to be highly reassuring. 

Ernest B. Dane was added to the Board of Trustees at this 
annual meeting. Mr. Dane's father was a Trustee at one time and 
it was he who developed the important orchid collection which 
his son now owns. Later in the year Edmund Mezitt resigned 
from the Committee on Prizes for business reasons and was suc- 
ceeded by Milford Lawrence of Falmouth. 

The special committee's anniversary program included awards 
outside the Society and in various parts of the state. Early in the 
year a Certificate was voted to the Connecticut Horticultural So- 
ciety for a beautiful display at the Western Massachusetts Spring 
Flower Show in Springfield. A Gold Medal was awarded the Hixon 
Greenhouses for a Spring garden at the Worcester Spring Flower 
Show. 

An Anniversary Certificate was awarded Mrs. W. H. Moore for 
the most beautiful exhibit at the Summer Show of the North Shore 
Horticultural Society. Frank Mailland is her gardener. Such an 
award was also made to Alexander Heimlich for an exhibit with 
a waterfall at the Topsfield fair. 

Notice was received from the Massachusetts Society for Pro- 
moting Agriculture that it had established quarters in the building 
of the Wenham Historical Society and could again take over the 



178 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

custody of certain books which had been stored in Horticultural 
Hall in Boston. This Society is slightly older than the Horticul- 
tural Society and many prominent men have been included in its 
membership. 

The Royal Horticultural Society having become 150 years of 
age in 1954, the Massachusetts Horticultural Society sent the 
following salutation, handsomely engraved on special paper : 

The Board of Trustees of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 
on this its 125th anniversary, acting for its 14,000 members, send greet- 
ings and congratulations to the Royal Horticultural Society on the oc- 
casion of its sesquicentenary celebration. We recognize the preeminence 
of your Society and pay tribute to its accomplishments. May it ever 
prosper and extend its influence for the advancement of horticulture at 
home and abroad. 

It was possible for this salutation to be presented personally to 
the President of the Royal Horticultural Society, as Mr. and Mrs. 
Ames were in London at the time of the celebration on a visit to 
their son, attached to the American embassy. They attended many 
of the events held in connection with the celebration and were 
warmly received. Mr. Ames was selected for special mention at 
the banquet. 

The death of Ray M. Koon in June was a tragic event. He had 
retired as head of the Waltham Field Station on May 1 and with 
his wife had gone to Nova Scotia to establish a new home, thus 
fullfilling a long-time dream. Serious illness brought him back to 
Boston and he passed away in the Massachusetts General Hos- 
pital at the age of sixty-five. Professor Koon had been an active 
member of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society for many 
years, serving as Chairman of the Committee on Exhibitions 
through an extended term. He resigned from the Board of Trus- 
tees in 1953 and in that year was awarded the Society's Gold 
Medal. 

A ten-page list of 16mm motion pictures for garden club pro- 
grams prepared by Dorothy S. Manks and Katherine V. Parker 
was widely distributed and proved very useful. 

A rearrangement of the editorial and advertising offices in 
Horticultural Hall was carried out in the course of the year. This 




The Society's Medal, which is 

reproduced in Gold, Silver and 

Bronze. 




The Thomas Roland Medal, 
Awarded for Skill in Horticul- 
ture. 




The Jackson Dawson Memorial 
Medal, with the Late Mr. Daw- 
son's Portrait. 





The George Robert White Medal 
of Honor. 



Reverse of the George Robert 
White Medal of Honor. 



The Horatio Hollis Hunnewell 

Medal, bearing the portrait of 

the Late Mr. Hunnewell. 



ANOTHER ANNIVERSARY IS CELEBRATED 179 

made it possible to assign an individual office to each editor and 
the advertising manager as well as the bookkeeper, a measure 
making for much greater efficiency. 

On August 3 1 New England was hit by a disastrous hurricane, 
with another a week later. Hundreds of members of the Society 
met with serious losses, as most of the ripening apples and pears 
were blown from the trees and great numbers of ornamental trees 
and shrubs were destroyed. Much damage was done to green- 
houses and to outdoor crops. Some of the copper covering on the 
roof of Horticultural Hall was lifted by the wind and extensive 
repairs were required. Fortunately there was insurance to cover 
much of this damage. 

Mr. Nehrling was Chairman of the committee which arranged 
the program of a Congress conducted by the American Horticul- 
tural Council at the Hotel Somerset in Boston beginning October 
27 and lasting four days. George Taloumis, one of his assistants, 
gave an illustrated lecture at the annual dinner, at which John 
C. Wister was toastmaster. On the second day the delegates visited 
the Loan Art Exhibition at Horticultural Hall as guests of the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

The attendance at this Congress exceeded that at any similar 
event. There were several unusual features, including a New Eng- 
land boiled dinner, which greatly pleased guests from other states. 
Mr. Nehrling was presented a bronze plaque by the associated 
Bulb Growers of Holland, while the Horticultural Society was 
given a scroll by the American Horticultural Council. The scroll 
was accepted by Mr. Ames as President of the Society. The officers 
remained as before, with Mr. Nehrling continuing as second Vice 
President and a member of the Board of Directors. 

The Society's magazine Horticulture had an anniversary of its 
own in 1954, having attained the ripe age (at least, for a mag- 
azine) of fifty years. This was indeed an event of importance, 
considering that not a single amateur, all-garden magazine which 
was in existence at the time of Horticulture's natal day is now 
being published. To properly observe this event the editors pre- 
pared an elaborate anniversary edition, which was issued in Octo- 
ber. It contained many important and interesting historical articles 
and a wealth of illustrations, many of them handdrawn. The cover 



180 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

was reproduced from a painting of the first Flower Show con- 
ducted by the Society 125 years ago. 

At a luncheon on the second day of the Congress mentioned 
above Horticulture's Golden Anniversary Scrolls were presented 
to four veteran editors, James H. Burdett, Fred F. Rockwell, 
E .L. D. Seymour and Edward I. Farrington. Richardson Wright 
was to be included but unfortunately could not be present. The 
presentation address was made by Daniel J. Foley, Editor of Hor- 
ticulture. 

The magazine had increased its circulation to 50,000 as the year 
neared its close. One thousand new subscribers were obtained at 
the Spring Flower Show in New York and an attractive booth set 
up at many fairs throughout the country during the Summer and 
Autumn months introduced the magazine to thousands of persons 
attracted by the remarkable color plates appearing in each issue. 
Mr. Husselbee went as far West as the Pacific Coast, making ad- 
vertising and circulation contacts. Later Mr. Foley went to the 
West Coast and into Canada to arrange for contributions from 
those sections. In the course of the Summer Mr. Nehrling made 
arrangements with the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society to re- 
sume the plan of sending Horticulture to all the members of that 
organization at a satisfactory price. Thus close ties were renewed 
with the progressive and expanding Pennsylvania Society. 

The closing event of the Society's 125th anniversary celebra- 
tion was unusual and distinctive. It took the form of a great loan 
exhibition of paintings and other works of art to indicate the 
influence of horticulture in this field. "Flowers in Art and Decora- 
tion," to use the formal description of the exhibition, required the 
use of all the halls in the building, with great numbers of valuable 
articles from private homes, museums and other sources. Fresh 
flowers were used in profusion for special decorations and the 
exhibition was open ten days. An invitation luncheon was served 
at the Harvard Club on the opening day, October 24, after which 
there was a private inspection of the exhibits, the doors being 
opened to the public at 6 p.m. It is believed that an exhibition of 
this kind on a large scale had never before been undertaken. 

The total attendance was 12,752. Each member of the Society 
was admitted once without charge. The general admission was 



ANOTHER ANNIVERSARY IS CELEBRATED 181 

$1.50. The receipts were not sufficient to entirely cover the ex- 
pense, but many of the visitors remained to become members. 
The Exhibition added greatly to the prestige of the Society and 
received the highest commendation from art critics, newspapers 
and radio editors. 

Notice was received that Mr. Nehrling had been awarded the 
Tessie K. Scharps Memorial Life Membership in the Horticultural 
Society of New York. This was "in recognition of his outstanding 
contributions to horticulture throughout his lifetime of service." 
Announcement was also made that Mr. Nehrling had been selected 
to lead a garden tour through the islands of Hawaii in June of 
1955, the tour being sponsored by the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society and endorsed by the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society. 

So, as this twenty-five years of history began with an anniver- 
sary and a celebration, it comes to a close in the same manner. 
Who can doubt that the Society will go on having anniversaries 
and celebrations until that unhappy day when gardening shall 
become outmoded and science alone shall rule the lives of men. 



MEDALS OF THE MASSACHUSETTS 
HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

The Society's Large Gold Medal — This Medal was designed by 
Francis N. Mitchell, apparently in 1847, as tne records show that a 
bill was rendered as of January 14, 1848, in the amount of $250. A 
replica in bronze was given to each member of the Committee on 
Medals, consisting of Messrs. Newhall, Stickney, Teshemacher, Hovey, 
Walker, and the president, Marshall P. Wilder. At present, the large 
Gold Medal costs about $86.40. 

The Society's Exhibition Medal — This Medal is a reproduction 
of the large Gold Medal on a smaller scale. It was authorized at a 
meeting of the Executive Committee in 1923, at which time the secre- 
tary was instructed to obtain dies for this Medal. The dies were made 
at a cost of $325 by the Medallic Art Company, New York City. The 
small Gold Medal costs about $51.70 at the present time. 

The Society's Silver Medal — This Medal is a replica in silver 
of the Society's large Gold Medal. 

The Society's Bronze Medal — This is a bronze replica of the 
Society's large Gold Medal. 

The George Robert White Medal of Honor — This Medal is 
considered the most important horticultural award in America. It was 
made possible through a gift of $7,500 by the late George Robert 
White and a subsequent gift of $2,500 by his sister, Mrs. Harriet J. 
Bradbury. The Medal was designed by John Flanagan and made by 
the Medallic Art Company. A new die is made each year with the 
name of the recipient molded into it. This Medal costs, at the present 
time, about $554. It is awarded by the Board of Trustees of the So- 
ciety to "the man or woman, commercial firm or institution, in the 
United States, or of some other country that has done the most in 
recent years to advance the interest in horticulture in its broadest 



1 84 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

Appleton Medal — This is one of the Society's earliest Medals, but 
its use was discontinued by vote of the Trustees in 1924. It carries the 
likeness of Samuel Appleton and was designed by Francis N. Mitchell, 
whose bill, dated August 5, 1848, was for $125. 

Centennial Medal — This was a special Medal of which only 100 
were awarded. It was given out only at the time of the Centennial 
Year of the Society in 1929. This Medal was designed by John Para- 
mino, who used the Society's seal as a basis and surrounded it with a 
border, afterwards adding a base. Mr. Paramino was paid $300 and 
the dies were made by Whitehead & Hogue for $244. 

Jackson Dawson Memorial Medal — This Medal was made pos- 
sible through a fund raised by the Horticultural Club of Boston, of 
which Mr. Dawson was long a member. It bears Mr. Dawson's portrait 
and was made by the Robbins Company of Attleboro at a cost of 
$250. The first Medal was struck in 1927. The present cost of this 
Medal is about $113. This Medal is made from the income of a fund 
now totaling $3,227. This fund may be used for prizes, lectures and 
medals, or as the Trustees may direct, to encourage the science and 
practice of hybridization and the propagation of hardy woody plants. 

Thomas Roland Medal — This Medal was designed by Mrs. Oakes 
Ames and made by the Gorham Company in 1927. The first Medal and 
case cost $177.50 and were presented to Mr. Roland at a meeting of 
the Trustees on March 29, 1927. Its face bears appropriately the 
representation of a cypripedium orchid, Mr. Roland having been par- 
ticularly fond of cypripediums. The cost of this Medal was shared by 
various friends with a small appropriation from the Society. The 
present fund is $3,000, the income being used for Medals to be awarded 
to men and women who have shown exceptional skill in horticulture, 
and for lectures. The present cost of each Medal is about $119. 

Hunnewell Medal — This Medal was designed by John Paramino 
and bears the head of the late H. Hollis Hunnewell, for many years 
an officer and benefactor of this Society. The first Medal was given 
to the Hunnewell family. The original cost of this Medal, including 
design and dies, was $550. This Medal costs at the present time $100 
and it is paid for from a fund of $2,000 established by Mr. Hunnewell 
in 1864 for prizes to be awarded "to the owners of estates of not less 
than three acres in extent who shall lay out and plant them with the 
most rare and desirable ornamental trees and shrubs, in the most 
tasteful and effective manner, developing the capabilities of the loca- 



THE SOCIETY'S MEDALS 185 

tions in the highest degree, and presenting the most successful exam- 
ples of science, skill, and taste, as applied to the embellishment of a 
country residence; the trees to be under the most thorough cultivation, 
the grounds in high keeping, and the prizes to apply equally in cases 
where proprietors take professional advice, as well as when acting on 
their own judgment in their improvements." 

It is now so difficult to meet these requirements that the Medal is 
awarded only occasionally. 

SPECIAL AWARDS AT THE FLOWER SHOWS 

Albert C. Burrage Gold Vase — Given for the most outstanding 
exhibit at any of the Society's shows in the calendar year. From a fund 
of $10,000 established by Mr. Burrage in 1929. The cost of each vase 
is $1,000. 

The President's Cup — Given for the most meritorious exhibit at 
the Spring Show. Offered and paid for by the President of the Society. 
Always the same size and pattern from a design selected by each 
President. 

Gold Medal of the Horticultural Society of New York — 
Offered and paid for by that Society since 1928. Given for the most 
beautiful exhibit at the Spring Show. 

Gold Medal Certificate of the Pennsylvania Horticultural 
Society — The certificate has been substituted for a gold medal since 
World War II. Given for the exhibit at the Spring Exhibition showing 
the highest standard of culture. 

Trophy of the Massachusetts Deparment of Agriculture — 
Awarded since 1939. A silver bowl paid for by the Department and 
given at the Spring Show for the best exhibit staged by a commercial 
grower in Massachusetts. 

Sarah Todd Bulkley Bronze Medal — Offered and paid for by 
the Garden Club of America since 1940. Given for an exhibit of spe- 
cial merit and/or for educational value. 

Antoine Leuthy Prize — A Medal from a fund established by Mr. 
Leu thy in 1948. Given at the Spring Show for the best display of 
flowering or foliage plants. 



186 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

Beacon Hill Garden Club Cup — A challenge or rotating cup 
engraved with the names of the winners and kept on display at Horti- 
cultural Hall. Offered since 1938 for the most charming garden club 
exhibit at the Spring Show. 

George Holliday Memorial Prize — Cash, offered and paid for 
since 1945 by Mr. and Mrs. Robert G. Stone for an exhibit of pot 
plants showing the highest standard of culture set up by a private 
gardener at the Spring Show. Paid to the gardener. May be withdrawn 
at any time. In memory of George Holliday, long superintendent on the 
Marion estate of the Stone family. 

Crystal Vases — Society's prizes awarded for the best blooms at the 
Daffodil and Tulip Shows. 

An Important Garden Book — Awarded by the Society for the best 
bloom at each Camellia Show. 

New England Gladiolus Society Anniversary Prize — An illu- 
minated Scroll awarded by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society at 
each exhibition of the Gladiolus Society for the best spike in the one 
spike open class. 

The Beatrix Farrand Silver Bowl — Offered at the Spring Show 
for the best exhibit of rhododendrons or azaleas. A rotating or per- 
petual trophy presented by Mrs. Farrand in 1953. To be engraved each 
year and kept on display in Horticultural Hall. 

ALBERT C. BURRAGE PORCH PRIZE AWARDS 

Albert C. Burrage created a fund in 1929 for what has come to be 
known as the Burrage Porch Prize. It originally provided for a Gold 
Medal to be awarded for a porch erected in Massachusetts in the 
current year, but held as requirements that it must be added to a 
house already standing, that it must overlook a garden and that it 
should receive a generous amount of direct sunlight each day. After 
a time it became difficult to meet these requirements and the award was 
made only occasionally. Therefore, in 1951, the Board of Trustees 
voted to alter the terms of this fund, with the consent of the Burrage 
family, and as now phrased it may apply to a terrace, veranda or other 
addition to a home overlooking a garden and need not necessarily be 
constructed in the current year. The requirement that the new con- 
struction must be an addition to a house already built still stands. 



THE SOCIETY'S MEDALS 187 

Porch awards have been made as follows: 
1929 — Ben: Perley Poore Moseley, Ipswich. 
1930 — Mr. and Mrs. H. J. Robinson, Needham. 
1 93 1 — Mr. and Mrs. C. W. Goodridge, Milton. 
1932 — Paul O. Nafe, Boston. 
1935 — Clifford Brown, Wellesley. 
1936 — Mrs. Charles S. Jenney, Brookline. 
1938 — Miss Alice G. Higgins, Newburyport. 
1940 — Mrs. Abbot Peterson, Brookline. 
1 95 1 — Mr. and Mrs. Harold S. Ross, Hingham. 
1952 — Mrs. Chester N. Greenough, Belmont. 
1953 — Mr. and Mrs. William Febiger, Manchester. 

GEORGE ROBERT WHITE MEDAL OF HONOR 

AWARDS 

1909 — Professor Charles S. Sargent, Director of the Arnold Arboretum. 

19 10 — Jackson Thornton Dawson, plantsman of the Arnold Arboretum. 

191 1 — Victor Lemoine, Nancy, France, originator of new varieties of 
flowering garden plants. 

191 2 — Michael H. Walsh, Woods Hole, Mass., rose specialist. 

1913 — Park Commission of Rochester, N. Y., for tasteful landscape 
planting. 

1 9 14 — Sir Harry James Veitch, London, England, nurseryman, for the 
propagation of ornamental garden plants. 

191 5 — Ernest Henry Wilson, Boston, Mass., for botanical and horti- 
cultural work in China and Japan. Famous as a plant hunter. 

19 1 6 — William Robinson, London, England, for educational work in 
horticultural literature. 

191 7 — Niels Ebbesen Hansen, Brookings, S. D., for plant and fruit 
introductions in the northwestern states. 

1 9 18 — Dr. Walter Van Fleet, Washington, D. C, for the production 
of new varieties of roses. 

19 19 — Vilmorin-Andrieux et Cie, Paris, France, for the introduction 
of new varieties of plants and vegetables. 

1920 — Georges Forrest of England, for the introduction of new garden 
plants from China. 

192 1 — Mrs. Louisa Yeomans King, Alma, Mich., for her work in popu- 
larizing gardening. 

1922 — Albert Cameron Burrage, Boston, for advancing interest in 
horticulture, especially in the cultivation of orchids. 



188 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

1923 — John McLaren, San Francisco, Calif., for the development of 
horticulture on the Pacific Coast. 

1924 — Joseph Pernet-Ducher, Venissieux-les-Lyons, France, for his 
work as a producer of valuable new roses. 

1925 — Professor Ulysses P. Hedrick, Geneva, N. Y., for the introduc- 
tion of new fruits. 

1926 — Pierre S. duPont, Wilmington, Del., for extending the love of 
flowers, and for the establishment of a great Winter garden. 

1927 — Dr. Liberty Hyde Bailey, Ithaca, N. Y., educator, author and 
editor. 

1928 — Colonel William Boyce Thompson, Yonkers, N. Y., for plant 
research work. 

1929 — Miss Gertrude Jekyll, England, amateur gardener and the 
author of many important books. 

1930 — David Grandison Fairchild, Washington, D. C, for seed and 
plant introductions. 

1 93 1 — Dr. Frederick V. Coville, Washington, D. C, for horticultural 
research work, particularly with blueberries. 

1932 — W. A. Manda, South Orange, N. J., for his activity along horti- 
cultural lines, the introduction and dissemination of new and 
useful plants. 

1933 — J. Horace McFarland, for his work in placing horticulture in 
America on a high plane. 

1934 — Captain F. Kingdon Ward, British plant collector and explorer, 
for the introduction of new plants and for his books. 

1935 — Prof. Oakes Ames, Boston and North Easton, Mass. Noted 
botanist, orchid authority, director of Harvard University's 
horticultural and botanical collections. 

1936 — Harlan Page Kelsey, East Boxford, Mass. Nurseryman, horti- 
cultural authority, member of " Standardized Plant Names" 
committee, advisor to the National Park Service. 

1937 — Frederick Law Olmsted, Brookline, Mass. Leading landscape 
architect, whose work in developing public parks throughout 
the country had won him great distinction. 

1938 — Robert Moses, New York City. The award was for his remark- 
able work in developing the New York Park System, thus 
bringing horticulture closer to the people of his city. 

1939 — George T. Moore, St. Louis, Mo., director of the Missouri 
Botanical Garden which he had developed into one of the 
most notable institutions of the kind. 

1940 — Sir Arthur William Hill, director of the Royal Botanic Garden, 



THE SOCIETY'S MEDALS 189 

Kew, England, and a powerful influence on horticulture in 
that country. 

1 94 1 — Prof. Frank A. Waugh, Amherst, Mass., emeritus professor of 
landscape architecture at Massachusetts State College, teacher, 
author. 

1942 — Jens Jensen, Ellison Bay, Wisconsin. Given in recognition of 
his great work as a landscape architect throughout the Middle 
West. 

1943 — Richardson Wright, New York, N. Y. Author, 30 years editor 
of House and Garden, chairman of the International Flower 
Show and influential in many organizations. 

1944 — Theodore Wirth, Minneapolis, Minn. Given for his remarkable 
work in developing public parks in Hartford, Conn, and in 
Minneapolis. 

1945 — William N. Craig, Weymouth. Private gardener and nursery- 
man. Given for a lifetime devoted to the improvement of 
horticulture in many fields. 

1946 — Dr. Elmer Drew Merrill, Jamaica Plain, Mass. Former director 
of the Arnold Arboretum and administrator of the botanical 
collections at Harvard University, authority on Philippine 
botany, one-time director of the New York Botanical Garden. 

1947 — Ernest F. Coe, Coconut Grove, Fla. Given for a lifetime devoted 
to the establishment of Everglades National Park. 

1948 — Lord Aberconway, president of the Royal Horticultural Society 
in London, and a man who had exercised an important in- 
fluence on horticulture in England. 

1949 — Dr. Wilson Popenoe, director, Escuela Agricola Panamericana, 
Honduras. Given for his highly important work in improving 
and extending horticulture and agriculture in Latin America. 

1950 — William Hertrich, San Marino, Calif. Given in recognition of his 
ability as a landscape architect, and particularly his develop- 
ment of the beautiful Huntington Botanical Gardens. 

195 1 — Sir William Wright Smith, Edinburgh, Scotland, director of the 
Royal Botanic Garden. He made this institution famous by 
growing there great numbers of the plants discovered by Ward, 
Rock and others in Western China. 

1952 — Dr. Albert Francis Blakeslee, Northampton, Mass. As a geneti- 
cist, he had drawn upon his vast knowledge to interpret 
scientific facts in a way that can be understood by the layman. 

1953 — Edward I. Farrington, Weymouth, Mass. Author, editor, secre- 
tary of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society for 23 years. 



1 9 o TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 



ALBERT C. BURRAGE GOLD VASE AWARDS 

1930 — Albert C. Burrage, for a large group of orchids at the Spring 

Show. 
1 93 1 — Bobbink & Atkins, for an exhibit of roses at the Spring Show. 
1932 — Mrs. Albert C. Burrage, for an exhibit of orchids at the Spring 

Show. 
1933 — Ralph Hancock, for a rock garden at the Spring Show. 
1934 — The Gardner Museum, for a modernistic arrangement of chrysan- 
themums at the Autumn Show. 
1935 — Jere A. Downs, for the Cymbidium Beatrice. 
1936 — Mrs. Frederick F. Brewster, for a tulip garden at the Spring 

Show. 
1937 — Mr. and Mrs. Francis B. Crowninshield, for a chrysanthemum 

garden at the Autumn Show. 
1938 — Mr. and Mrs. Ben: Perley Poore Moseley, for an azalea garden 

at the Spring Show. 
1939 — Mr. and Mrs. Edwin S. Webster, for a chrysanthemum garden 

at the Autumn Show. 
1940 — Cherry Hill Nurseries, for a comprehensive exhibit of peonies, 

rhododendrons and azaleas at the June Show. 
1 94 1 — Mrs. Galen L. Stone, for a group of acacias at the Spring Show. 
1942 — Mr. and Mrs. M. M. Van Beuren, for a lily garden at the Spring 

Show. 
1943 — L. Sherman Adams, for a group of orchids at the Spring Show. 
1944 — Albert A. Hulley, for a clematis garden at the Spring Show. 
1945 — Frost & Higgins Co., for a California Redwood scene at the 

Spring Show. 
1946 — Bay State Nurseries, Inc., for a Memorial Garden at the Spring 

Show. 
1947 — Sherman W. Eddy, for a Vermont covered bridge scene at the 

Spring Show. 
1948 — Alexander Irving Heimlich, for a ledge garden at the Spring 

Show. 
1949 — Harlan P. Kelsey, Inc., for an informal garden at the Spring 

Show. 
1950 — Mr. and Mrs. Robert G. Stone, for an entrance planting of 

acacias at the Spring Show. 
1951 — Mr. and Mrs. John S. Ames, for an informal azalea garden at 

the Spring Show. 



THE SOCIETY'S MEDALS 191 

1952 — B reek's, for an informal garden at the Spring Show. 
1953 — Mrs. Edwin S. Webster, for a group of chrysanthemums at the 
Autumn Show. 

JACKSON DAWSON MEMORIAL MEDAL 
AWARDS 

1927 — Lambertus C. Bobbink, Rutherford, N. J. 

1928— T. D. Hatfield, Wellesley, Mass. 

1929 — Charles Sander, Brookline, Mass. 

1930 — William Anderson, South Lancaster, Mass. 

1 93 1 — William Henry Judd, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

1932 — Charles O. Dexter, Sandwich, Mass. 

1933 — E. G. Hill, Richmond, Ind. 

1934 — H. Harold Hume, Gainesville, Fla. 

1935 — H. M. Hovath, Mentor, Ohio. 

1936 — Robert M. Gray, Cienfuegos, Cuba. 

1937 — J. E. Spingarn, Amenia, N. Y. 

1938 — Joseph B. Gable, Stewartstown, Pa. 

1939 — Walter D. Brownell, Little Compton, R. I. 

1940 — Guy G. Nearing, Ridgewood, N. J. 

1 94 1 — Frederick Huber Howard, Los Angeles, Calif. 

1942 — Henry T. Skinner, Chestnut Hill, Pa. 

1943 — Wilfrid Wheeler, Falmouth, Mass. 

1944 — Joseph Herbert Hill, Richmond, Ind. 

1945 — Walter B. Clarke, San Jose, Calif. 

1946 — Isabella Preston, Ottawa, Canada. 

1947 — Prof. M. A. Blake, New Brunswick, N. J. 

1948 — Prof. Harold B. Tukey, East Lansing, Mich. 

1949 — Prof. Richard Wellington, Geneva, N. Y. 

1949 — Prof. George Slate, Geneva, N. Y. 

1950 — Dr. Samuel L. Emsweller, Beltsville, Md. 

195 1 — Dr. Walter E. Lammerts, La Canada, Calif. 

1952 — Arie F. den Boer, Des Moines, Iowa. 

1953 — Francis Meilland, Cap d'Antibes, France 

THOMAS ROLAND MEDAL AWARDS 

1927 — Thomas Roland, Nahant, Mass. 

1928— E. G. Hill, Richmond, Ind. 

1929 — Frank R. Pierson, Tarrytown, N. Y. 



i 9 2 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

1930 — Carl Purdy, Ukiah, Calif. 

1 93 1 — J. D. Eisle, Philadephia, Pa. 

1932 — Dr. Walter G. Kendall, Atlantic, Mass. 

1933 — Lambertus C. Bobbink, Rutherford, N. J. 

1934 — William Kleinheinz, Elkins Park, Pa. 

1935 — William N. Craig, Weymouth, Mass. 

1936 — Elmer D. Smith, Adrian, Mich. 

1937— Dr. A. B. Stout, New York, N. Y. 

1938 — Alex Cumming, Jr., Bristol, Conn. 

1939 — August Koch, Chicago, 111. 

1940 — George Pring, St. Louis, Mo. 

1 94 1 — C. J. van Bourgondien, Babylon, Long Island. 

1942 — Vincent L. DePetris, Grosse Pointe Farms, Mich. 

1943 — Edward Owen Orpet, Santa Barbara, Calif. 

1944 — Albert A. Hulley, Middleboro, Mass. 

1945 — Edmund F. Palmer, Vineland Station, Ontario. 

1946— Thomas H. Everett, New York, N. Y. 

1947 — Eric Walther, San Francisco, Calif. 

1948 — Henry Kohankie, Painesville, Ohio. 

1949 — Montague Free, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

1950 — Jan de Graaff, Gresham, Ore. 

1 95 1 — Prof. Alex Laurie, Columbus, Ohio. 

1952 — Dr. Victor A. Tiedjens, Marion, Ohio. 

1953 — Arnold Davis, Cleveland, Ohio. 

H. H. HUNNEWELL MEDAL AWARDS 

1870 — Edward S. Rand, Jr., Dedham 

1873 — William Gray, Jr., Dorchester 

1879 — Francis B. Hayes, Lexington 

1894— Nathaniel T. Kidder, Milton 

1898 — Mrs. David Nevins, South Framingham, Mass. 

1899— Arthur F. Estabrook, Beach Bluff 

1 90 1 — Oakes Ames, North Easton 

1902 — Charles H. Tenney, Methuen 

1903 — Henry H. Rogers, Fairhaven 

1906 — Mrs. John L. Gardner, Brookline 

1907 — Morton F. Plant, Groton, Conn. 

1910 — George E. Barnard, Ipswich 

191 1 — Col. Harry E. Converse, Marion 

191 6 — Walter Hunnewell, Wellesley 



THE SOCIETY'S MEDALS 193 

1923 — Mr. and Mrs. Henry S. Hunnewell, Natick 

1924 — Henry H. Richardson, Brookline 

1925 — Caleb William Loring, Manchester 

1925 — Bayard Thayer, Lancaster 

1926 — William S. Endicott, Dan vers 

1927 — Frederick S. Moseley, Newburyport 

1928 — Mr. and Mrs. R. T. Crane, Jr., Ipswich 

1929 — Mrs. Gustavus D. Parker, Osterville 

1930 — Mr. and Mrs. Edward D. Brandegee, Brookline 

1 93 1 — Mr. and Mrs. John S. Ames, North Easton 

1933 — Mrs. Homer Gage, Shrewsbury 

1934 — Grenville Lindall Winthrop, Lenox 

1935 — Russell Tyson, North Andover 

1937 — Mrs. William Henson Baltzell, Dover 

1938 — Mr. and Mrs. Geoffrey G. Whitney, Milton 

1940 — Mr. and Mrs. Clement S. Houghton, Chestnut Hill 

1942 — Mrs. William A. Parker, North Easton 

1946 — Mrs. R. Boyer Miller, Wenham 

1949 — Dr. George O. Clark, Newburyport 

PORTRAITS, BUSTS AND VASES 

The following is a complete list of the portraits and other paintings, 
the busts, and the vases at Horticultural Hall as of December 31, 1954: 

PRESIDENTS PORTRAITS 

H. A. S. Dearborn Roxbury 1829-34 

Copied by Jane Stewart from a portrait painted by her father, Gilbert 
Stuart. Paid for by the Society May 1, 1861, $101.70. Restored after 
the fire of 1888 by Frederick E. Wright, Boston. Paid for by the 
Society, June 20, 1889, $150. 

Zebedee Cook, Jr. Dorchester 1835 

Painted by Walter M. Brackett. Paid for by the Society, May 10, 
1861, $75. Restored after the fire of 1888 by Frederick E. Wright. 
Paid for by the Society, December 26, 1889, $150. Restored by 
Walter M. Brackett, Boston, May 25, 1895, $ 2 5- 

Elijah Vose Dorchester 1835-40 

Painted by J. Harvey Young, Boston. Paid for by the Society, 
April 24, 1 86 1, $100. Restored after the fire of 1888 by Frederick 



194 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

E. Wright, Boston. Paid for by the Society, June 14, 1889, $150. 
Restored by Walter M. Brackett, Boston. Paid for by the Society, 
May 25, 1895, $200. 

Marshall P. Wilder Dorchester 1841-48 

Painted by Jane Stuart, Boston. Paid for by the Society, April 12, 
1861, $75. Restored after the fire of 1888 by E. T. Billings, Boston. 
Paid for by the Society, June 4, 1889, $150. 

Samuel Walker Roxbury 1849-51 

Painted by Alonzo Hartwell, Boston. Paid for by the Society, April 
13, 1861, $100. Restored after the fire of 1888 by Frederick E. 
Wright, Boston. Paid for by the Society, June 14, 1889, $150. 

Joseph S. Cabot Salem 1852-57 

Painted by Walter M. Brackett, Boston. Paid for by the Society, 
April 1, 1861, $100. Restored by Walter M. Brackett, Boston. Paid 
for by the Society, June 10, 1889, $200. 

Josiah Stickney Watertown 1858 

Painted by Alonzo Hartwell, Boston, 1861. Paid for by the Society. 

Joseph Breck Brighton 1859-62 

Painted by Henry C. Pratt, Boston. Paid for by the Society, April 
8, 1861, $75. Repaired after the fire by Frederick E. Wright, Boston, 
June 14, 1889, $75. 

Charles M. Hovey Cambridge 1863-66 

Painted by Alonzo Hartwell, Boston, March 17, 1865. Paid for by 
the Society, $125. Frame and Tablet bought of Williams & Everett, 
Boston, May 19, 1865, $51.75. Restored after the fire of 1888 by 
Frederick E. Wright, Boston. Paid for by the Society, June 20, 1889, 
$150. 

J. F. C. Hyde Newton 1867-70 

Painted by Alonzo Hartwell, Boston. Paid for by the Society, 
August 21, 1867, $125. Restored after the fire of 1888 by Jean Paul 
Selinger, Boston. Paid for by the Society, June 1, 1889, $200. 

William C. Strong Brighton 1871-74 

Painted by Virgil Williams, Boston. Paid for by the Society, May 
27, 1871, $200. Restored after the fire of 1888 by Jean Paul Selinger, 
Boston. Paid for by the Society, June 1, 1889, $200. 

William Gray, Jr. Dorchester 1878-79 

Painted by J. Harvey Young. Paid for by the Society, December, 



PORTRAITS, BUSTS AND VASES 195 

1878, $200, The portrait of William Gray, Jr. is not in the Hall, 
probably having been destroyed by the 1888 fire, but is included to 
keep the record straight. For an account of the fire see Benson's 
history. 

Francis B. Hayes Boston 1880-84 

Painted by E. T. Billings, Boston. Paid for by the Society, June 4, 
1889, $150. Frame made by Hastings & Davenport, September 30, 
1886, $45- 

John B. Moore Concord 1884-85 

Painted by E. T. Billings. Paid for by the Society, May 18, 1886, 
$150. Restored after the fire of 1888 by E. T. Billings, Boston. Paid 
for by the Society, June 4, 1889, $150. 

Henry P. Walcott Cambridge 1886-89, I00 4 

Painted by Edward H. Barnard, Boston. Paid for by the Society, 
June 19, 1891, $200. Frame bought of J. Eastman Chase, Boston, 
$36. 

William H. Spooner West Roxbury 1890-92 

Painted by Miss Helen M. Hinds, Boston. Paid for by the Society, 
December 6, 1893, $200. Framed by George E. Davenport, Boston, 
$45. Portrait restored by Walter M. Brackett, Boston, May 25, 1895, 

$25. 

N. T. Kidder Milton 1893-95 

Painted by J. Harvey Young, Boston. Paid for by the Society, 
September 27, 1897, with frame, $560. 

Francis Henry Appleton Peabody 1896-1900 

Painted by Marie Danforth Page. Paid for by the Society, January 
24, 1903, $200. Frame, $40. 

O. B. Hadwen Worcester 1901-03 

Painted by Henry E. Kinney of Worcester. Paid for by the Society, 
May 18, 1904, $100, including frame. 

Arthur F. Estabrook Boston 1905-06 

By Joseph DeCamp. Presented by the executors of the Estabrook 
Estate, 1925. 

Stephen M. Weld Dedham 1907-10 

By R .S. Merryman. Cost $250. 



196 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

Charles W. Parker Boston 1911-12 

Painted by his son, Charles S. Parker. Paid for by the Society, 
February 2, 191 5, $250, including frame. 

John K. M. L. Farquhar Boston 1913-15 

Gift of the Horticultural Club of Boston. Presented December, 1925. 

Richard M. Saltonstall Chestnut Hill 191 6-1 9 18 

Painted by H. H. Brooks from an original. Presented by Richard 
Saltonstall, February 1953. 

William Crowinshield Endicott Boston 191 9-1920 

Painted by Marie Danforth Page. Presented by Mrs. Endicott April, 
1945- 

Albert Cameron Burrage Beverly Farms 1921-1931 

Artist unknown. Presented to the Society November, 1944. 

Edwin S. Webster Chestnut Hill 193 2-1 944 

Painted by Philip A. de Laszlo, November, 1925. Presented by Edwin 
S. Webster, April 1947. 

MISCELLANEOUS PORTRAITS 

Samuel Downer Dorchester 

Councillor. One of the founders. Member of the fruit committee for 
many years. November 12, 1870. Presented by his son, Samuel 
Downer. 

Cheever Newhall Dorchester 

Treasurer. One of the founders of the Society. First treasurer. Vice- 
president for many years. September, 1869. Presented by the Massa- 
chusetts Agricultural Club. 

Aaron D. Weld Boston 

One of the earliest and most active members of the Society. Pre- 
sented by friends, 1872. 

Joseph H. Billings West Roxbury 

Presented by friends, 1872. 

Robert Manning Salem 

Member. Councillor, 1841. Secretary, 1876-1902. Painted by H. E. 
Kinney, October 25, 1902. Paid for by the Society, $100. 



PORTRAITS, BUSTS AND VASES 197 

Jacob W. Manning Reading 

Painted by Henry Cook. Presented in 1923 by his sons: Warren H. 
Manning, William S. Manning, A. Chandler Manning, J. Woodward 
Manning, Benjamin F. Manning. 

Edwin W. Buswell Maiden 

Chairman of Flower Committee, Treasurer, Librarian, Correspond- 
ing Secretary. Presented by friends. 

Benjamin P. Cheney Boston 

Member of Boston Finance Committee. Presented by friends. 

H. Hollis Hunnewell West Needham 

Vice-President, 1864-74. Presented by the family, 1904. 

John Davis Williams French Boston 

Presented by the family, 1902. 

Benjamin V. French Boston 

Councillor. Vice-President, 1840-57. Presented by his nephew, Ben- 
jamin V. French of Lynn, 1872. 

Aaron Davis Williams Boston 

Councillor. Presented by his son, Aaron D. Williams, 1872. 

William Kenrick Newton 

Councillor. One of the founders of the Society, member of the council 
and of the fruit committee. Presented by Marshall P. Wilder on 
behalf of a few gentlemen, March 4, 1871. 

J. B. Russell Boston 

Councillor. One of the founders of the Society taking an active part 
in its organization and afterwards acting as its general agent. Pre- 
sented by Marshall P. Wilder on behalf of a few gentlemen, March 
4, 1871. 

Samuel Sweetzer Cambridgeport 

Presented by his daughter, Miss H. F. W. Sweetzer, April, 1907. 

Thomas Roland Nahant 

Trustee of the Society. Painted by Leslie P. Thompson, 1933. Paid 
for from Thomas Roland Fund Interest. $500. Frame made by 
Walfred Thulin. $40. 

Ernest H. Wilson Jamaica Plain 

Trustee of the Society. Painted by Marie Page. 1933. Paid for from 



198 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

the Jackson Dawson Memorial Fund Interest. $500. Frame made by 
Walfred Thulin. $45. 

Jere Arthur Downs Winchester 

Trustee of the Society. Painted by Wilbur F. Noyes. Presented by 
the Downs Estate, March, 1945. 

PAINTINGS BEQUEATHED TO THE SOCIETY 

The late Nathaniel T. Kidder, who passed away in 1938 after serv- 
ing many years in such capacities as president, a member of the Board 
of Trustees and chairman of the library committee of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society, bequeathed four of his paintings to this organiza- 
tion. They are as follows: 

Watercolor, n inches by 6% inches, of Flowers, by Alfred Parsons, 
in a narrow gilt frame. 

Painting on canvas, 13^ inches by 17 inches, of Chrysanthemums 
in a greenhouse, by E. N. Fisher, in a narrow gilt frame. 

Framed Watercolor, 37^ inches by 19 inches, of a landscape with 
tall date palms, by H. R. Newman, in a wide gilt frame. 

Framed Watercolor, n^ inches by 8 inches, Sondannella and Cro- 
cus, by Teresa Hegg. 

In addition to these paintings, Mr. Kidder left the Society approxi- 
mately 300 books on horticulture and allied subjects and an outright 
bequest of $5,000 for the use of the library. 

PAINTINGS OBTAINED BY GIFT 

Opening of the Exhibition of the United States Agricultural Society in 

Boston, October, 1855. Marshall P. Wilder, President. Duplicate 

picture, also original, presented June, 1923, by his son, Edward B. 

Wilder. 
Cereus giganteus, by Henry C. Pratt. Donated by L. M. Sargent, 

December 15, i860. (Cactus found in the hot and arid regions of 

New Mexico.) 
Woman in poppy field, by Francis Davis Millet, 1884. Presented in 

1924 by Misses Marian Roby Case and Louisa Williams Case. 
Group of fruit, by A. De Franchimont. Presented in 1924 by Misses 

Marian Roby Case and Louisa Williams Case. 



PORTRAITS, BUSTS AND VASES 199 

Vase of roses. Presented in 1924 by Misses Marian Roby Case and 

Louisa Williams Case. 
Lotus, Japanese Painting by K. Takahashi, Tokyo, 1901. Presented 

by Mrs. Clement S. Houghton, 1934. 

BUSTS 

Jacob Bigelow, M.D. 1837-1879 

Presented by Charles O. Whitmore, 1872. (Full length portrait of 
Jacob Bigelow destroyed in the fire of 1888.) 

Amos Lawrence 

Presented to the Society by his son, Amos A. Lawrence, January, 
1872. 

John Lowell 

By Bracket. Presented to the Society, January, 1872. 

Theodore Lyman 

By Henry Dexter. Paid for by the Society, June, 1852, $300, to 
commemorate the gifts of trust funds. 

Francis Parkman 

By Joseph Milmore. Paid for by the Society, February 17, 1876, 
$200. 

Josiah Stickney 

By Henry Dexter, 1863. Presented by Charles O. Whitmore. 

Charles Sumner 

Bought of P. Gariboldi, May 12, 1870, $35. 

Daniel Webster 

Bought of P. Gariboldi, May, 1870, $15. 

C. O. Whitmore 

By Joseph Milmore. Presented by the Massachusetts Agricultural 
Club, January, 1869. 

Marshall P. Wilder 

By Henry Dexter. Presented to the Society by Charles O. Whitmore, 
March, 1863. 

VASES, ETC. 

The two matched blue vases were presented by Josiah Bradlee, Boston, 
June 7, 1845. 



200 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

The two small china vases (flowers and birds) were presented by 

George B. Jones, September 16, 1856. 
The small china vase (dragon on side) was presented by George B. 

Jones, April 27, 1849. 
The two large china vases (horses) were presented by Francis H. Apple- 
ton and Arthur F. Estabrook, January, 1901. 
Two small decorated vases were bought at auction by the Society about 

1880. 
Two carved teak wood bases for the largest vases, gift of Mrs. S. V. 

R. Crosby, December 22, 1931. 
Two large bronze vases. One glass display case, gift of Wilfrid Wheeler, 

June, 1937. 
Two large blue vases, presented in memory of Samuel J. Goddard by 

Mrs. Samuel J. Goddard, May, 1949. 

TRUSTEES FROM 1929 
Name Elected Retired 

Thomas Roland 1909 1929* 

Edwin S. Webster 191 7 1949* 

Fred A. Wilson 1920 1931 

William C. Endicott 1921 1936* 

Mrs. Bayard Thayer 1921 1941* 

Nathaniel T. Kidder 1922 1938* 

John S. Ames 1922 



Francis S. Appleton 1922 1939* 

Marian Roby Case 1922 1944* 

Mrs. S. V. R. Crosby 1922 1953 

Arthur Lyman 1922 1928 

George C. Thurlow 1922 1930 

Henry P. Walcott 1922 1932* 

Ernest H. Wilson 1922 1930* 

Mrs. Homer Gage 1923 1938 

Walter Hunnewell 1925 



Albert C. Burrage 1925 1931* 

Howard Coonley 1926 1935 

Loring Underwood 1926 1930* 

Robert C. Morse 1928 1928* 

George Peabody Gardner Jr. 1929 1933 

James Methven 1929 1932 

* Members of the Board who died while in office. 



TRUSTEES FROM 1929 201 

Name Elected Retired 

Robert G. Stone 1929 1942** 

Samuel J. Goddard 1929 1948* 

Harlan P. Kelsey 1930 1948 

Joseph E. Chandler 1930 1936 

Ernest B. Dane 1931 1936 

Hugh Bancroft 1931 1933* 

George Butterworth 1931 



Albert C. Burrage, Jr. 1932 1934 

Jere A. Downs 1933 *935* 

William Ellery 1933 1944 

Harold S. Ross 1933 

William Dexter 1934 1937 

Winthrop L. Carter 1935 1938 

Louis Agazzis Shaw 1936 J 939 

Charles K. Cummings 1936 1947 

Mrs. Roger S. Warner 1936 

Robert H. Roland 1937 1938** 

Dr. Elmer D. Merrill 1938 1953 

William P. Wolcott 1938 1944 

Fletcher Steele 1939 1945 

Winthrop L. Carter 1939 1943* 

Mrs. John Gardner Coolidge 1940 1952 

Aubrey B. Butler 1941 

Dunbar Lockwood 1942 1945 

Dr. George O. Clark 1943 

A. Shaw McKean 1944 1948** 

Ernest Hoftyzer 1944 1950 

Paul Dempsey 1944 1946 

George Lewis Jr. 1944 1952* 

Richard C. Paine 1945 1946** 

Mrs. William A. Parker 1945 

William P. Wolcott 1946 1948* 

Ray M. Koon 1947 1953 

Stedman Buttrick 1947 

George B. Cabot 1948 1952** 

John Chandler 1948 1949 

Seth L. Kelsey 1948 

Dr. Ralph A. Van Meter 1949 



* Members of the Board who died while in office. 
** Resigned. 



202 TWENTY-FIVE HISTORIC YEARS 

Name Elected Retired 

Oliver Wolcott 1949 

Ernest Borowski 1950 

Albert C. Burrage 195 1 

Mrs. James Perkins 1952 

Mrs. Edwin S. Webster 1953 

Harold D. Stevenson 1953 

Dr. Donald Wyman 1953 

Edward Dane 1954 



INDEX 

The awards of the George Robert White Medal of Honor, the H. H. 
Hunnewell Medal, the Thomas Roland Medal, the Jackson Dawson 
Memorial Medal, the Albert C. Burrage Gold Vase, the Albert C. 
Burrage Porch Prize and the dates of service of the Trustees are omitted 
from the Index as they are listed chronologically in the Appendix. 



Aberconway, Lord, visit by, 55; award 

to, 56, 125 
Adams, Mrs. Arthur, award to, 120, 171 
Adams, Mrs. Helen, Award to, 125 
Adams Company, L. Sherman, award to, 

56, 97 
American Horticultural Council, Con- 
gress of, 179 
American Iris Society, New England 

Region of the, award to, 113 
American Orchid Society, cooperates in 

a Spring Show, 152 

Ames, John S., award to, 85; elected 

president, 106 ; gift of book from, 161 ; 

accepts a scroll for the society, 179 

Ames, Mrs. John S., cup offered by, 131 

Ames, Mr. and Mrs. John S., award to, 

117, 152, 175 
Ames, Oakes, botanical chart prepared 
by, 58; resigns from the board of 
trustees, 86; made an honorary trus- 
tee, 86; death of, 146; career of, 146 
Ames, Winthrop, award to, 12 
Anderson, William, 85 
Andover Inn, award to, 171 
Anniversary Committee, 174 
Appleton Farms, award to, 66 
Appleton, Gen. Francis H., death of, 74 
Armstrong, Charles D. award to, 20 
Armstrong, Mrs. Charles D., award to, 

86 
Arnold Arboretum, award to, 166 
Arnold, Rev. and Mrs. Harold G., award 

to, 164 
Arnott, Peter, 71 ; award to, 131 
Autumn show, admission fee charged, 30 
Awards to gardeners, 8 
Ayer, Mrs. Charles F., award to, 47 



Azaleas, Kurume, first exhibited, 19 



Bacon, Gaspar G., award to, 38 

Baker, Horace, award to, 28 

Baker, Dr. Hugh P., award to, 135; 

death of, 156 
Baker, Mr. and Mrs. George B., award 

to, 38 
Barbour, Dr. Thomas, award to, 70 
Bartlett, F. A., award to, 80 
Bay State Nurseries, award to, 112, 117, 

125 
Benevolent Fruit and Flower Mission, 28 
Benway, Stillman, bequest of, 167 
Berkshire Garden Center, award to, 93 
Billings, Miss Bernice, award to, 11 
Binney, Miss Mary May, head of "Gar- 
den Week" committee, 135; award to, 
149 
Bird, Mrs. Charles Sumner, Jr., award 

to, 38 
Blakeslee, Dr. Albert F., award to, 122 
Blanchard, Archibald, award to, 20 
Blood, Charles O., award to, 34 
Blossom, Harold Hill, flower show plan- 
ner, 43 ; death of, 48 
Blue Ribbon Certificates, introduced, 27 
Bobbink, Lambertus C, death of, 156 
Bonus, paid employes, 95 
Borowski, Ernest, award to, 70, 97, 128 
Boston, award to park department of, 28 
Boston Mycological Club, office provided 

for, 72 ; moves to Cambridge, 99 
Boston Victory Garden Committee, 

award to, 114 
Bowditch, Ernest W., books given in 
memory of, 32 



204 



INDEX 



Bowers, Dr. Clement Gray, new book 

by, 176 
Bradley, Mrs. J. D. Cameron, award to, 

102 
Brailey, Dr. Allen C, award to, 171 
Brandegee, Mr. and Mrs. Edward D., 

award to, 12 
Breck's, award to, 150, 152, 160 
Brookline, Town of, award to, 60 
Brown, Miss Helen, exhibit designed by, 

70 
Brown, Mrs. Theodore, award to, 28, 43 
Bruggermann, L. G., award to, 86 
Buffum, Jesse, lecture by, 143 
Burdett, James H., presented Horticul- 
ture's anniversary scroll, 180 
Burnham, Mrs. Grace, award to, 171 
Burrage, Albert C, porch fund estab- 
lished, 2 ; begins 10th term as presi- 
dent, 6; gift to the society, 8; death 
of, 14; efforts of in the society's be- 
half, 15; cranberry fund established 
by, 15; library of bequeathed to the 
society, 15 
Burrage, Mrs. Albert C, delivers rare 
books to the society, 83 ; delivers 
water colors to the society, 83 ; death 
of, 140 
Burrage, Albert C, Jr., award to, 93 
Burrage, Albert Cameron, 3rd, death of, 

114 
Burrage Porch Fund, terms of modified, 

156 
Butler & Ullman, award to, 175 
Buttrick, Stedman, award to, 127; 
elected treasurer, 132; first report by, 
138 
Buxton, Mrs. H. H., bulletin by, 19; 
award to, 163; record of begonia 
species, gift by, 163 
Buzzards Bay Garden Club, award to, 

137 
By-Laws of the Society, changes in the, 
7; amendments to adopted, 24; com- 
mittee appointed to revise the, 58; 
amended, 105, 112 

Cambridge Plant Club, award to, 20, 153 

Camellia Show, becomes established, 70 

Camfield, Mrs. Esther L., secretary 

Benevolent Fruit and Flower Mission, 

165 
Camp, Dr. W. H., lecture by, 69 
Carter, F. I. & Sons, award to, 113, 118, 

160 



Carter, Winthrop L., death of, 106 
Case, Miss Louisa, bequest of, 126 
Case, Miss Marian Roby, donates bronze 
medals, 41 ; retires from children's 
garden committee, 77; work of as 
committee chairman, 77; elected an 
honorary trustee, 77; death of, 107; 
bequest of, 107 
Cataloguing Fund, established, 49 
Centennial Exhibition, 1 
Centennial Medals, 1 
Certificates, first class, 51 
Chamberlain, R. G., award to, 150 
Chandler, Joseph, memorial to, 126 
Cherry Hill Nurseries, award to, 65, 76 ; 

tribute to, 76 
Chestnut Hill Garden Club, award to, 

146 
China, tribute to, 94 
Chrysanthemum Society of America, ex- 
hibit of, 83 
Clark, Dr. George R., award to, 113, 142 
Clark, William H., appointed editor, 

124; resignation of, 148 
Cohn, Dr. and Mrs. Edwin, award to, 

151 
Cole, William R., award to, 109 
Concord Grape, centennial of, 139 
Coolidge, Mrs. John G., award to, 46 
Corliss Brothers, award to, 35 
Cornish, Geoffrey S., author, 164 
Craig, William, N., lily prize established 

by, 8; death of, 128; career of, 128 
Crosby, Mrs. Stephen Van Renssaeler, 

award to, 38; new chairs presented 

by, 57 ; tribute to, 75 ; resigns from 

board of trustees, 167 
Crowell, Ivan H., lecture by, 45 
Crowninshield, Mrs. Francis B., award 

to, 38, 71, 83 
Cummings Estate School Garden exhibit, 

award to, 139, 161 
Cummings, Miss Margaret, award to, 47, 

164 
Cunningham, Mrs. John H., award to, 

115; tribute to, 115 
Curtis, Prof. Ralph W., lecture by, 45 
Curtis, Will C, award to, 49; tribute to, 

75 ; award to, 97, 103 

Daffodil Show, first, 50 
Dahlia Show, discontinued, 122 
Danielson, Mr. and Mrs. R. E., award 

to, 157 
Davenport, George E., herbarium of, 21 



INDEX 



205 



Davis, Arnold, director Cleveland Gar- 
den Center, 108 
Dayton, William A., award to, 79 
De La Mare, Alpheus T., award to, 80 
Desmond, Thomas, award to, 150 
Dexter, Charles O., award to, 86 
Dexter, Mr. and Mrs. W. Endicott, 

award to, 47 
Dooley, Thomas Patrick, reviews school 

garden movement, 40 
Downs, Elizabeth, awards to, 50 
Downs, Jere A., award to, 38; bequest 

to the society, 108 
Dutch Bulbs Growers' Association, 131 

Eastwood, Mrs. Catherine S., award to, 

12 
Eddy, Sherman, awards to, 36, 125 
Edmunds, Fred, award to, 162 
Edwards, Miss Grace, award to, 34 
Ellery, William, point system of judging 

defended by, 50 
Elliott, Mrs. Emily I., resigns as secre- 
tary Fruit and Flower Mission, 116 
Emery, Mr. and Mrs. H. P., award to, 

157 
Endecott, Gov. Prize, offered by William 

C. Endicott, 3 
Endicott, Wendell H., award to, 127 
Endicott, William C, death of, 53 ; work 

for the society reviewed, 54 
Endowment Fund, campaign for, started, 

107; campaign closed, 119; increased, 

129 
Eustis, Mrs. Tracey, award to, 13 
Everett, City of, award to, 79 
Exhibition Committee, fees for, 32 
Exhibitions, number of reduced, 127 

Fairbanks, Stephen, bulletin by, 153 
Fairchild, David G., award to, 12 
Farrand, Mrs. Beatrix, award to, 156; 

silver bowl from, 175 
Farrington, Edward I., award to, 93; 
resigns as secretary, 117; complimen- 
tary dinner for, 123; tribute to, 125; 
presented Horticulture's anniversary 
scroll, 180 
Fearing, Mrs. George A., award to, 28 
Feinberg, Mrs. Archibald I., award to, 

160 
Felt, Dr. E. P., lecture by, 66 
Feno, Mrs. Carteret, award to, 3 
Fernald, Merritt L., award to, 99 
Finnie, George, award to, 137 



First Church of Christ, Scientist, award 

to, 86, 171 
Fischer, George L., lecture by, 66 
Fisher, Peter, trophies and medals of, 

1S8 
Floods, 1936 exhibition hampered by, 

49 
"Flowers in Art and Decoration," anni- 
versary celebration, 180 
Foley, Daniel J., appointed editor of 

Horticulture, 148 ; Horticulture's scrolls 

presented by, 180 
Foote, Mrs. Harriet R., death of, 156 
Foote, Mrs. Stuart F., lecture by, 51 
Forbes, Mrs. George O., award to, 13, 

142 
Forbes, Mr. and Mrs. William Stuart, 

award to, 121 
Forbes, Mrs. William Stuart, designer of 

prize exhibit, 76 
Frese, Paul, resigns as associate editor, 

47 
Frost, Paul, award to, 3 
Fruit and Vegetable Show, first, the, 

30 

Gage, Mrs. Homer, death of, 140 
Garden Club Exhibition Committee, 

award to, 70, in, 125 
Garden Club Exhibits, made eligible for 

sweepstakes, 58 
Garden Club of America, award by, 70, 

97; board of associates entertained, 

154 

Garden Club Federation of Massachu- 
setts, headquarters provided for, 72 ; 
award to, 112, 146 

Garden Club Service, Inc., work of, n 1 ; 
award to, 113 

Garden Club Year Books, traveling col- 
lections of, 73 

"Garden Week in Massachusetts," first, 
135; second, 149. 

Geehan, James, appointed assistant to 
the secretary, 18; appointed advertis- 
ing manager, 31; death of, 148 

Gifford, Mr. and Mrs., award to, 151 

Goddard, Samuel J., death of, 132 

Graaff, Jan de, gift of manuscripts by, 
161 

"Grandmother's Garden," award to, 60 

Graves, George, bulletins by, 91, 92; 
broadcasting by, 99; awarded Jewett 
prize, 124; becomes a nurseryman, 124 

Greenslet, Mrs. Ferris, award to, 47 



206 



INDEX 



Greer, Mr. and Mrs. Don S., award to, 

163 
Grisworld, Mrs. Charles C, award to, 

60, 143 
Groton Garden Club, award to, 131 

Hadley, Dr. and Mrs. Amos, award to, 

38 
Hamilton, Ormond, award to, 76 
Hancock, Ralph, awards to, 30 
Hans, Egbert, award to, 56 
Hartford, Mrs. E. V., award to, n 
Hayes, Francis Brown, bequest of, 137; 

as a benefactor, 137 
Hayward, Mrs. Harry, award to, 3 
Heald Company, award to, 143 
Heimlich, Alexander I., award to, 97, 

103, 131, 160, 175, 177 
Herb Society of America, Francis Tor- 

rey Norton Memorial presented by, 

67; office provided for, 80 
Herrington, Arthur, award to, 80 
Hewitt, George, award to, 160 
Hicks, Henry, award to, 86 
Higgins, Mrs. Aldus, award to, 157 
Hoffman, Mrs. Bernard, award to, 143 
Holiday, George, a new award, 103 
Honorary Members, list of established, 

94 
Hornblower, Mrs. Ralph, award to, 34 
Horticulture, prizes offered by, 73; is- 
sued monthly, 130; selected for per- 
manent recording, 147 ; award to, 147 ; 
subscription price increased, 155; 
Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 
withdraws its subscriptions, 155 ; Hor- 
ticultural Society of New York with- 
draws its subscriptions, 155; subscrip- 
tion price increased, 169; eight color 
pages added, 170; fiftieth anniversary 
edition of, 179; anniversary scrolls 
awarded by, 180; circulation increased 
to fifty thousand, 180; subscriptions 
by the Pennsylvania Horticultural 
Society restored, 180 
Horticultural Hall, improvements made 
in, 15; plans for a new building aban- 
doned, 18; exhibition hall renovated, 
49; new room constructed on the 
third floor, 57; four new offices pro- 
vided, 72 ; new freight elevator in- 
stalled, 84; alternating current intro- 
duced, 84 ; blackout curtains installed, 
89 ; loud speaker system installed, in ; 
Edison steam heat installed, 147 ; mod- 



ern incinerator installed, 159; com- 
position floor laid in the lecture hall, 
159; sound-proof ceilings installed, 159 
House Plant Exhibition, a new show, 126 
Howard, Dr. Richard A., lecture by, 164 
Howes, Mrs. Osborne, award to, 34 
Hudson, Miss Ethel E., appointed secre- 
tary of the Benevolent Fruit and 
Flower Mission, 116; death of, 133 
Hudson, Mr. and Mrs. Willard, award 

to, 134 
Hulley, Albert A., award to, 49, 70, 97, 

131, 166 
Humphrey, Mr. and Mrs. Richard S., 

171 
Hunnewell, Francis and Miss Louisa, 

award to, 163 
Hunnewell, H. H. Medal, introduced, 37 
Hurley, James J., award to, 122 
Hussey, Mrs. Frederick, award to, 3 
Hyde, Mrs. George L., award to, 28 

Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Royal 
Horticultural Society cup won by, 56; 
award to, 66, 103, 133, 145 

Jackson, Hooper, appointed head jani- 
tor, 147 
Jackson & Perkins, award to, 152 
Jackson, Robert T., books from the li- 
brary of, 147; death of, 140 
Jane Hart Cascade Chrysanthemums, 

origin of, 77 
Japanese Beetle, bulletin about, 61 
Jekyll, Gertrude, award to, 2 
Johnson Brothers, Inc., award to, 166 
Johnson, Mr. and Mrs. Mitchell, award 

to, 157 
Johnson, Stewart, award to, 103 
Jones, Donald Forsha, award to, 156 
Joy, Ellis, death of, 147 
Judd, William H., death of, 113 
Junior League Garden Club, award to, 
131, 160 

Keener, Hazel, appointed editorial assist- 
tant, 47 ; resigns, 63 

Kelsey, Harlan P., award to, 52 ; career 
of, 52 

Kelsey, Harlan P., Inc., award to, 83, 
90, 137, 160 

Kelsey, Seth, radio program of, 132 ; ap- 
pointed chairman anniversary commit- 
tee, 174 

Kendall, Dr. Walter G., award to, 17; 
work with grapes, 27 



INDEX 



207 



Key, Ellen, water colors by, 147 
Kidder, Nathaniel T., death of, 64; be- 
quest of, 64 
King, Mrs. Francis, books from library 

of, 147 
Kinsey, Prof. Albert C, award to, 99 
Kirkman, Mr. and Mrs. S. A., award to, 

150 
Koon, Ray M., changes in judging sug- 
gested by, 91; resigns from board of 
trustees, 167; award to, 172; death of, 
178 

Lamb, Misses Aimee and Rosamond, 

award to, 164 
Lane, Joseph J., award to, 172 
Lane, Mrs. G. M., award to, 46 
Latimer, Julia A., lectures by, 52 
Leuthy, Antoine, medal fund established 

by, 131 
Lewis, George, Jr., death of, 164 
Lexington Nurseries, Inc., award to, 131 
Library Catalogue, completed, 176 
Lichens, display of, 153 
Lily Show, discontinued, 133 
Lily Society, North American, organized, 

126; first annual meeting of, 133 
Lincoln, Edwin Hale, death of, 64; be- 
quest of, 64 
Littlefield, William R., appointed adver- 
tising manager, 148; resignation of, 
156 
Loring, Mrs. Lindsley, award to, 66 
Low, Mrs. Edward G., award to, 21 
Lovell General Hospital, award to, 113 

Macomber, John R., award to, 114 

Manda, W. Albert, award to, 26; death 
of, 26 ; career of, 26 

Manks, Miss Dorothy S., report on trade 
catalogues, 47 

Manning, Richard C., gift of books by, 
32 

Marchant, Alfred H., award to, 60 

Massachusetts, Commonwealth of, award 
to, 78 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 
provides aid to unemployed, 26; pur- 
poses of its library, 40; host to the 
American Orchid Society, 51; gives a 
dinner for members, 55; receives a 
gold medal award, 55; raises dues to 
three dollars, 68; turns to war work, 
88; awarded a certificate, 114; resumes 
giving medals, 117; reclassified in re- 



spect to gift and bequest taxes, 119; 
declines an offer for the building, 120; 
awarded the Bulkley medal, 136; 
membership reaches a new high, 146; 
dues increased to four dollars, 155; 
employes vote to accept social secu- 
rity, 158; freed from taxes on admis- 
sions, 167; dues raised to five dollars, 
169; receives Bulkley medal, 175; 
membership reaches fourteen thou- 
sand, 176; 125th anniversary observed, 
180; anniversary luncheon, 180 
Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance 

Company, award to, 60 
Massachusetts Nurserymen's Association, 

cooperation by the, 75 
Massachusetts Society for Promoting 
Agriculture, office in Wenham estab- 
lished by, 177; takes over books from 
Horticultural Hall, 177 
Mayo, Mrs. Florence, important records 

compiled by, 25 
McFarland, J. Horace, death of, 140 
McGinley, Mrs. Holden, award to, 28 
McGinley, Mrs. J. R., award to, 19 
McKean, Q. A. Shaw, resignation of, 

131 

Medal certificates, substituted for medals, 

97 

Men's Garden Club of Boston, organ- 
ized, 141 ; convention host, 160 

Merrill, Dr. Elmer Drew, career of re- 
viewed, 121; explains library policy, 
138; critical report by, 168; resigns 
as a member of the Board of Trustees, 
170 

Michigan Horticultural Society, sub- 
scribes to Horticulture for its mem- 
bers, 143 

Montgomery, Colonel R. H., award to, 
72 

Moore, Mrs. W. H., anniversary award 
to, 177 

Morgan, Mrs. Edith, award to, 34 

Moseley, Ben: Perlay Poore, award to, 
2, 164 

Motion Picture Program, prepared and 
distributed, 178 

Mt. Auburn Cemetery Fund, 75 

Murray, Thomas, gardener for Mr. and 
Mrs. Francis Crowninshield, 83 

Nehrling, Arno H., appointed exhibition 
manager, 31; elected president of the 
Society of American Florists, 63; ap- 



208 



INDEX 



pointed secretary of Boston war gar- 
den committee, 88; elected a director 
of United Horticulture, 119; appointed 
executive secretary, 124; elected secre- 
tary of the American Horticultural 
Council, 127; presents awards to New 
York show winners, 130; attends the 
Spring flower show in California, 138 ; 
attends the international Horticultural 
Congress in London, 162; elected a 
director of the Men's Garden Clubs of 
America, 173 ; program chairman of the 
1954 American Horticultural Congress, 
179; presented a bronze plaque, 179; 
awarded the Scharps Memorial Life 
Membership in the Horticultural So- 
ciety of New York, 181; selected to 
lead a garden tour to Hawaii, 181 
Newell, Edward C, lecture by, 52 
New England Gladiolus Society, office 

provided for, 72 
New England Gourd Society, office pro- 
vided for, 72 
Newton, Brenda, appointed associate 

editor, 173 
Newton, City of, award to, 60 
New York Experiment Station, exhibits 

by, 59 
North Shore Garden Club, award to, 

i37, 146 
North Shore Horticultural Society, 

award to, 175 
Norton, Mrs. Charles, award to, 47 
Norton Company, award to, 143 
Norton, Francis Torrey Memorial pre- 
sented the society, 67 
Norton, Harry, death of, 140 

O'Brien, Daniel, award to, 115 
Orchids, new rule affecting the exhibi- 
tion of, 58 
Osgood, Mr. and Mrs. Dana, award to, 

34, 145 
Ott, John Nash, Jr., lecture by, 132 

Painting, representing the society's first 

show, 105 
Palmer, George, award to, 134; remark- 
able show record of, 134; superintend- 
ent for Mrs. R. M. Saltonstall, 134 
Parker Brothers, record exhibitors, 168 
Parker, Miss Cornelia Conway, award 

to, 28 
Parker, Mrs. Gustavus D., award to, 3 
Parsons, Miss Mary, award to, 12 



Pearson, Haydn S., award to, 142 
Pease, Mrs. Charles, award to, 47 
Peirce, A. Allan, death of, 165 
Pennell, Mrs. Henry D., award to, 3 
Perkins, Mrs. Ida A., appointed secre- 
tary of the Fruit and Flower Mission, 
133 ; resignation of, 165 
Peterson, Mrs. Elizabeth, award to, 72 
Pickman, Dudley L., award to, 27 
Pierson, Frank R., award to, 3 
Pigeons, a problem, 52 
"Plant Buyer's Guide," published, 120 
"Plant Buyer's Index," purchased, 120 
Post, Dr. Kenneth, award to, 142 
Preininger, Miss Margaret, lectures by, 

52 
President's Gallery, 26 
President, two candidates for, 56 
Preston, Miss Isabella, award to, 21 
Prize Committee, fees for, 40 
Proctor, Mr. and Mrs. Charles A., award 

to, 20 
Purdy, Carl, award to, 12 

Queen, John W., death of, 165 
Quincy, City of, award to, 93 

Rehder, Dr. Alfred, award to, 59 
Rich, William Penn, death of, 10; her- 
barium of, 21 
Riley, Mrs. Charles E., award to, 93 
Robinson, Mrs. H. J., award to, 13 
Rockwell, Fred A., award to, 180 
Roland, Robert H., Resignation of, 63 
Roland, Thomas, death of, 1 ; career of, 

1 ; tribute to, 2 
Ross, Harold S., suggests new awards, 

78 
Ross, Mr. and Mrs. Harold S., award to, 

151, 157 
Royal Horticultural Society, salutation 

from, 5 ; cup for award presented by, 

56; cablegram from, 82; salutation 

sent to, 178 
Rule Book, completely revised, 44 
Rummage Sales, 45, 73 
Russell, John, award to, 127 

Saltonstall, Richard M., portrait of, 167 
Salvage, Mr. and Mrs. Louis H., award 

to, 171 
Sander, Charles J., award to, 2 ; death 

of, 64 
Sedgwick, Mr. and Mrs. Ellery, award 

to, 121 



INDEX 



209 



Seiner, Frank, becomes landscape con- 
sultant, 113 
Seymour, E. L. D., presented Horticul- 
ture's scroll, 180 
Shaw, Prof. Jacob K., award to, 109 
Show Insurance Fund, established, 1 ; 

large addition to, 123 
Simpson, A. Kenneth, award to, 134 
Slate, George L., lecture by, 70 
Spring Flower Show, held in Horticul- 
ture Hall, 8, 25, 96, 103, 112 
Stackpole, Mrs. Pierpont L., award to, 

38 
Steffek, Enwin F., joins the armed forces, 

98; resignation of, 138 
Stevenson, Harold, becomes technical 
show adviser, 137; makes overall show 
plan, 174; awarded Horticulture's 
medal, 175 
Stewart, George, award to, 103 
Stewart, William J., library of given the 

society, 67 
Stimpson, Rufus Witaker, award to, 53 
Stoddard, Mr. and Mrs. Henry G., 

award to, 134 
Stone, Mrs. Galen L., award to, 38, 112 
Stone, Mr. and Mrs. Robert G., award 

to, 125, 136, 166, 175, 160 
Stone, Robert, resigns as a member of 

the board of trustees, 98 
Stone, Mrs. Robert, offers a one hundred 

dollar prize, 11 
"Stowaway Sweets," award to, 171 
Stranger, David C., death of, 76 
Sturtevant, Robert, lectures by, 58 
Sturtevant, Miss Grace, death of, 114 
Subway, construction of the, 73 
Sullivan, John, award to, 146 

Taloumis, George, appointed associate 
editor, 138; given leave of absence, 
161 
Taylor, Norman, award to, 53 
Taylor, Dr. William A., award to, 72 
Teele, Mrs. Arthur P., special classes 

conducted by, 84, 162 
Thayer, Mrs. Bayard, death of, 84; ef- 
forts of in behalf of the society, 85 
Titus, Mrs. Gertrude I., award to, 13 
Todd, William, award to, 113, 125, 131 
Totty Memorial Medal, a new award, 

97 
Trade Space, introduced at the fall show, 

139 
Tudor, Mrs. Henry D., aids the chil- 



dren's show, 139; money for milk 
donated by, 139 ; milk fund established 
by, 167 

Tudor, Mr. and Mrs., award to, 163 

Tulip Show, established, 70 

Underwood, Loring, death of, 9 

Van Beuren, Mr. and Mrs. M. M., 
award to, 66 

Wadsworth, Mrs. Elizabeth Downs, 
death of, 107 ; bequest by, 108 

Walcott, Henry Pickering, death of, 28 

Walke, William P. & Sons, award to, 76, 
90 

Walker, Mr. and Mrs. Clifford C., 171 

Wall, Milford, lecture by, 143 

Wallace, Mrs. Charles F., award to, 34 

Walters, Fred, award to, 146 

Waltham Field Station, tribute to, 75; 
award to, 114 

Ward, Mr. and Mrs. Arthur, award to, 
171 

Warner, Mrs. Roger S., appointed chair- 
man of the children's show committee, 

139 
Warren, Mrs. Fiske, gift of orchid prints 

by, 101 
Waugh, Prof. Frank A., death of, 114 
Webster, Edwin S., elected president, 23 ; 
reelected president, 63 ; presents deer- 
skin to the library, 84; award to, 90; 
last address as president, 104 ; portrait 
of received, 129; award to, 137; death 
of, 147 ; horticultural activities of, 147 
Webster, Mr. and Mrs. Edwin S., award 

to, 71, 146 
Webster, Mrs. Edwin S., award to, 27; 

160 
Webster, Mrs. Helen Noyes, bulletin by, 

33; death of, 140; tribute to, 140 
Weld, Mrs. Charles G., award to, 86 
Weld, Mrs. Stephen, award to, 34 
Wellington, Richard, award to, 59 
Wendler, Henry G., active in children's 

shows, 139; report by, 177 
Weston Nurseries, award to, 153, 166 
Weston, T. A., Memorial Trophy, a new 

award, 146 
Wheeler, Wilfrid, show plan suggested 
by, 56 ; vases and glass case presented 
by, 57; award to, 83; awarded Jewett 
prize, 100 
Whipple, Mrs. Sherman, head of Garden 
Club Service, Inc., 11 1 






210 



INDEX 



White, Miss Elizabeth, award to, 86 
White, Prof. Edward A., award to, 65 
Whitney, Mr. and Mrs. Geoffrey, award 

to, 19, 150 
Whitney, Mrs. Geoffrey, benefaction by, 

83 
Wild Flower Preservation Society, New 
England, room provided for, 16; 
awards to stimulate propagation of 
wild flowers, 51 ; award by, 83 
Wilson, Ernest H., death of, 9; career 

of, 9 
Wilson, Fred A., death of, 156 
Winchester, town of, award to, 79 
Winsock, Joseph A., award to, 66 ; mur- 
der of, 66 
Winter Gardeners, award to, 125 
"Winter Hardy Rhododendrons," pub- 
lished by the society, 176 

Farrinjtor, E. I. 
Twenty-fi\e historic 

years 
Date Due 



Wister, John C, award to, 65 
Wolcott, Oliver, appointed assistant 

treasurer, 169 
Wolcott, William T., death of, 131 
Women's Exhibition Committee, formed 

132; award to, 146, 152, 176 
Wood, Allen H., Jr., president of the 

Men's Garden Club of Boston, 141 
Wood, James, death of, 161 
Wright, Mrs. Irving, award to, 70, 

125 
Wright, Richardson, Horticulture's scroll 

issued to, 180 



Year Book, outlines the society's work, 

80 
Young, Charles, unorthodox fruit 

grower, 41 



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